From the Editor: We present the first book in the series "Gardens of the North-West", which is published by the publishing house "Russian Collection". The good news is that in St. Petersburg there have been publications on landscape design and gardening, which are not only useful to read, but also pleasant to hold in your hands and look through. Among the authors and co-authors of the series are the authors of our journal. With permission from the publisher, we reprint one of the chapters in this book. In the next issues we will present to our readers other novelties from this series.
Not far from the Pushkinskie Gory reserve on the road to Novo-Rzhev is the village of Altun. Before the revolution, it was the estate of Count Lvov, and it was called Altona. There was a real castle with an observatory tower and a greenhouse where melons and grapes were grown. There was also a distillery and a storehouse of colored stone with large stone bowls dug into the ground. An acute-angled carriage house, a beautiful small lake with numerous springs, two parks with a radial system of alleys and a pond excavated in the shape of South and North America with an antique statue on the isthmus have survived to this day. But the Reds came, and the count went abroad. Then the Germans came. As they left, they blew up the castle. A long period of fighting for the harvest began, and fertilizers were stored in stone bowls, and then perestroika broke out.
Oh, sorry, I was going to tell you about my garden. Rather, I wanted to tell you about my second life - about my summer life, which is as strikingly different from winter as summer is from winter. My summer life begins in April, and then the population of Altoona increases by one person, that is, me. Winter life always comes in October, and although it imposes a city-like business pace, summer life does not disappear altogether. It flows like an underwater river somewhere below in a parallel channel, reminding of what happened, and anticipating what will be.
And it will happen that one morning I wake up, or rather, even in a dream, I will begin to sort out yesterday's worries: "... ask the editor to check the finished layout, look through the quarterly reports ..." last year's hop thickets. Lord, glory to you, Lord, I am in Altun! I can't believe the miracle happened again. And so, in a dressing gown and galoshes with fur, I, as if enchanted, "do not eat, do not pimshi", wander along the paths of my summer life; with my eyes, nose, ears, I try to catch undeniable evidence of her presence. Here is a starling sitting on an old oak tree by the well, in its beak there is some lace, probably moss. Crocuses and iridodictums hatched under the apple tree, so smart!
Red-haired Lachik looks at me attentively and smiles with his tongue sticking out: he knows, sly fellow, that I won't go for a walk with him in a dressing gown, what if? By the pond, the pigeons - I will not approach, let them drink. Dark trunks of old lindens, apple trees with branches sagging from last year's harvest, impenetrable thickets of lilacs form a complete graphic landscape. The bathhouse has a second oak tree, or rather an oak tree, already middle-aged, about three hundred years old, but strong and fruitful. In other years, the ground under it is covered with acorns, like ice crust. And here is an invaluable reserve: a repository of limestone slabs, discovered last summer by accident in the middle of a field overgrown with tall grass, in a hole that was once a cellar. Its walls were sheathed with slabs and the floor was laid out, most of them had long ago collapsed. Five times our "UAZ" with a trailer made trips until it brought this treasure. Soon a path will be laid out of the tiles, and they will receive a second life. The tall old foundation of the former human, overgrown with grass and bushes, is also waiting in the wings. I don’t know yet what it will turn into: maybe a grotto for solitude, maybe it will become the basis for a greenhouse or nursery. Nothing, stood for a hundred years, let it stand still.
Inwardly rejoicing and not making out the road, I walk around the garden in circles, I look and cannot get enough of it. In the end, I meet with my husband, who is looking for me, has already gone around everything twice and wants tea, because he got up early, before dawn, and chopped wood, but saw that the wolf had blossomed, and the bees that were foolish after winter crawling over the primrose leaves. We go into the house, drink tea, and the sun shines through all the windows, and there is such a long summer life ahead, filled with wonderful worries, the most joyful in the world, which you cannot call worries, but simply happiness.
Marina Vazhova, Pskov region, village Altun
- The basis of your garden is made up of conifers - pines, fir, spruce and hemlock. Where did you buy this material and are there any rules for composing compositions?
- At first, we purchased the first planting material from one company - the largest supplier of open field plants. But later she began to make joint purchases in VKontakte groups. Firstly, the cost of planting material is much lower, and secondly, the assortment is much more interesting and richer. The main principle when composing coniferous compositions (this also applies to mixed ones) is not to add “silver” to “gold”. Where there are white colors and shades, there should not be yellow, and vice versa. My personal rule is that the composition should have a sense of proportion. For example, I have each plant solo, viewed from all sides, visible their clear silhouette and shape. This can be achieved by pruning and shaping the crown: I spend it 1-2 times a season as needed.
- Let's talk about the varieties of conifers that grow in your garden. Which of them can you recommend for novice gardeners?
- Proceeding from the fact that the size of the site does not allow "roaming", you have to choose varieties with a narrow crown, weeping or strictly pyramidal. In this regard, I would like to note the Omoriku spruce, a distinctive feature of which is just a narrow crown. One of them is the ornamental variety Philips Spring Sensei. Although my beauty is still a baby, she already pleases with the bright color of the needles from spring to autumn. She has a bright white-gold growth that lasts until the second half of summer and, what is most surprising, does not burn in the sun. There is also a favorite - common spruce of the Gold Drift variety. She has a narrow, weeping yellow crown that turns into a chic skirt that spreads right on the ground. But she makes some demands on her place of residence. It is advisable to find a place for her on the site so that only the morning or evening sun plays with rays in her crown, in order to avoid sunburn. The Gold Drift's center conductor must be tied up or it will turn into a groundcover spruce. Another no less interesting variety of ordinary spruce is Lucky Strike. It has dark green needles and a sparse, vertical, irregularly shaped crown with large purple-red cones.
Omorica spruce of the Philips Spring Sensei variety. Photo: From personal archive / Olga Stolypina
- Tell me, should the boles of this coniferous "line" all be of the same height?
- Not. Different heights allow you to create different tiers of the crown, and thus the whole composition will be better viewed. Examples for standard forms - spruce prickly Hermann Nau with a rounded gray crown. It looks extremely attractive due to the red cones growing at the ends of the shoots. Korean fir Ice Brecker looks incomparable on a trunk. This is a unique slow-growing dwarf with many densely spaced branches, a dense cushion-shaped crown and silvery-blue twisted needles.
- It seemed to you that there are not enough spruces and firs in the garden and that is why you also planted pine trees?
- Pines are a wonderful decoration of the garden, I appreciate them for the beauty of the crown, its decorative appearance. It so happened that when entering our garden, more than half of the site was visible. This problem was solved by planting mountain pine (species). She covered the perspective with her branchy branches, leaving individual garden compositions for dessert. Now she has grown and turned into a stately beauty with a height and width of 3 × 3. We have to pull the branches together and expose the bottom so that beautiful skeletal branches are visible. But, of course, there are many dwarf mountain pine varieties that easily fit into any composition, and they can also be shaped, but not like spruce, which can be cut right along the crown. Pine trees are formed by breaking out by half or 2/3 of new growths - candles - at the moment when they just begin to grow with needles in the spring. Basically, many yellow-coniferous pine varieties show their color in winter. But there is an exception, for example, my favorite cute dwarf variety Lemon, which has a lemon-golden needles all season, soft to the touch. Banks pines are also stable in our climate - the Chudik variety - a creeping dense shrub with an open crown growing horizontally. Its branches and needles are curved, it will look great on a retaining wall or on a slope. But just like that, the varieties of imported selection will not take root. All the conifers that I talked about grow and develop well in our climate, subject to proper planting and agricultural technology.
Age restrictions: +12
Current page: 1 (total of the book has 10 pages) [available passage for reading: 4 pages]
© Kurdyumov N.I., photo, text, 2013
© AST Publishing House LLC, 2016
If you want to break, plant and build a garden,
Comprehend the land earlier, find out what it is rich in.
Then you use the opportunities skillfully,
And the business undertaken will bear fruit.
In a new way - it means smarter, more convenient and more productive than the average everywhere around. Do you agree?
A smart garden as a phenomenon is simply defined: this is the place where but) good to you, and b) good for plants... Everything. A piece of wood in this sense - if it fully satisfies your needs - is the smartest garden there is.
First. The stupidest thing is to judge your dacha by someone else's standards, even by authoritative and agronomic ones. A garden in which you feel good is a plant expression of your personality. A garden is a way to express and delight yourself... He's YOUR. You deserve it!
Second. For it to be good for you, it must be good for the plants. And they will be fine only in the conditions they need... That is, in a suitable climate or microclimate. There are few such problems to the south of the Black Earth Region. But Siberia and the Non-Black Earth Region - here gardens can be planted far from everywhere, but it is better to look for favorable microzones: southern slopes, protected from the winds. Do not even think about planting a garden on the northern slope or in the lowland - there will be no sense.
To this must be added normal, non-critical soil conditions. For example, in a swampy, flooded area, stone fruits  1
Stone fruits - cherries, cherries, plums, cherry plums, apricots, peaches. All of them have a hard bone, they secrete "wood glue" - gum. They are genetically related. There are even cherry-plum hybrids.
[Close] you can't even grow in the south: the roots are ripping out. And in the north, they must be planted in the hills, otherwise the root collar will vomit. Or: when planting, especially in the dry south, humus in the hole and thick mulch are required  2
Mulch is everything that covers the soil from above, as in nature. The basic concept of natural farming. Mulch retains moisture and accumulates dew, provides nutrition and carbon dioxide, and removes temperature fluctuations. Undiscovered soil is an agronomic disaster and a problem of modern agriculture.
[Close], otherwise the tree may fall behind, wither away from lack of moisture. On chalk and limestone soils, special rootstocks are needed. Etc.
Third. Believe it or not, a third of the northern seedlings in the Kuban either die from heat and droughts, or barely bear fruit. And in Siberia, 80% of the seedlings perish precisely because they were brought from the south! If acclimatizing plants is not your hobby, your garden should consist mainly of local plant forms. They, of course, are not so tempting with novelty, but they are stable and durable.
And fourth: so that you feel good, the garden should be COMFORTABLE... Siberians do not know our southern misfortune: ten-meter cherries, eight-meter apple trees ... Harvest at the top, ropes, ladders, and you crash - thank you for being alive. Our way out is low and flat formations  3
Formation - the word has two meanings: the work of forming the root, and the resulting type of crown.
[Close] crowns that require regular work, or dwarf rootstocks. But you need to breed and plant them yourself, because working with rootstocks is its own topic. In Siberia, on the contrary: trees grow poorly, and the less you touch them, the more resistant they are to frost.
A very important part of convenience is fenced-off permanent beds and flower beds, smart curbs, supports and trellises, clever arrangement of garden areas, paths and trees themselves. In general, everything requires brains!
So, we take stable, reliable plants, comfortable structures and formations, competent planting - and everything grows. But the hardest part is all of this smartly arrange in advance. Depict the garden before the seedlings are delivered. So that both beautifully and expediently, and even express your personality. There are no recipes here. But there are working principles.
Variety type - a suspicious type selling seedlings, such as varietal.
Our reality, which has not changed in ten years: more than half of the purchased seedlings are not what they bought. Why? Here is the only truth: precisely and only because the buyer has no idea what he is buying... I am writing this chapter as a pill against naive consumer irresponsibility.
Damn it, that instead of the desired tree, it turns out in three cases.
CASE 1: just deception... What you are being sold is not what you are buying. It is found only in the 3-5th year by fruits. "I bought six varieties, and started to produce - and everything is the same!" Oh, they did fructify after all. So this is not the worst!
Exit a), professional: to become a connoisseur of seedlings, species and varieties, and BETTER THE SELLER TO KNOW WHAT YOU ARE BUYING. And where. The only sure way, albeit the most esoteric.
Way out b), wise: the conscious application of sociability, charm, intelligence, external data, connections and all the best in oneself to establish friendships with a local master gardener, a good seedling grower or his acquaintances. It is very effective, although not absolutely reliable: the sympathies of professionals are inscrutable ...
Exit c), widening your eyes: be able to see if they are trying to push you a wild or a dead man. Almost all varietal seedlings vaccinated (in Kuban - "kalyarovany"). On their root collar there is a characteristic bend, and at the bend there is a stump or a round wound from the cut rootstock. If in front of you is a straight stem and a powerful taproot, then it is very likely that these are seedlings. And most often wilds from the forest - where that grows. We especially like to dig for forest dogwood, but I saw both a forest pear and an apple-sour tree. But they often dig everything that sticks out and at least somehow resembles a sapling. Can you distinguish a poplar twig from a pear without glasses? Ah, even with glasses ...
A seedling growing from a piece of thick horizontal root is root offspring... Do you think it is taken from a rooted tree (and only in this case it will repeat its properties)? More than not a fact! There are few varieties propagated by offspring now. They are mainly produced by a semi-cultivated stock - cherry and plum seedlings. That's really a lot of this stuff! Why not drag it to the market.
Exit d) is philosophical. Something like fatalism or romantic nihilism: "Well, apparently, this is the fate ...", or: "They are looking for all good varieties, but I will not deliberately!"
Exit e), compassionate: "Son, take it, you won't regret it, you will remember me later, honestly!" The truth is: you will have to remember in any case. Good advice: kill two birds with one stone - and give money to your grandmother, and don't take a seedling for yourself. You can take it as a gift to a harmful neighbor. Or out of pure curiosity. The main thing is to be able to hold back hope!
Any profitable deception is always accompanied by trash: the seedlings may already be dead, half-dead, dried up, with dried roots - that is, not tenants.I do not even single out this in a special case: you sell it is not clear what - it is not clear what it is. In fact, the quality of the seedling is guaranteed only in one case: it was dug up in your presence... But the quality is a little lower.
CASE 2: the seedlings are already in the nursery caught tinder rot of wood... The trouble of all stone fruits (cherry, sweet cherry, plum, cherry plum, peach, apricot, nectarine). A massive phenomenon: the first vaccination has died - we will inoculate a second time, do not throw out the stock. Extra wounds, an extra year - that's rot. THE DECISION: a) choose the healthiest seedlings, and b) ensure that the tree grows strong enough. And more on that below.
Let me remind you quietly: making your seedlings or grafting, you do not have the above problems at all. True, there is nothing to complain about, and then there is no one to grumble about - a huge minus! And yet ... maybe you can somehow live without it.
CASE 3: A lively, strong seedling does not have a normally formed root system... A mass phenomenon wherever people pay not for quality, because they have no idea about it! OUTPUT - the ability to choose a good root system. I'll teach you now.
Clarification of good roots
Something is growing.
Oh, don't bother!
Imagine a picture: all summer residents, laying a new garden, are accustomed and taught to prepare places for trees in advance - to plant and sow the best local rootstocks. Southerners - to plant their dwarfs, to sow antipka, quince or cherry plums; northerners and Siberians - to sow forest apples, pears and cherries, Chinese plums and Manchurian apricots, irgu and cotoneaster for pears. A few seeds per hole, then leave a couple of the strongest. Strong seedlings grow by the end of July. Summer residents call and invite craftsmen - to do budding (inoculation with a kidney - with an eye). Or in the spring - do copulation (graft with a butt-end handle). Those can come with their varietal cuttings, or they can plant those that were cut and saved by the owner. Vaccination is cheaper than a seedling, and almost all of them take root. Another year - and the garden is bristling with strong varietal trees. No risk, no pain with acclimatization, no punctures!
You can inoculate in a one-year seedling, or in the crown of a two-three-year-old tree. Volga scientists have long called for planting apricots in this way, which root necks are cut out in snowy winters. And so I sowed plums in place of the seeds, after a couple of years I re-grafted an apricot at a height of about a meter - you will get a non-boiling tree.
You can leave both grafted trees. After a year, they are easy to grow together. ablating (splicing in the butt - by pressing, removing the strips of the bark), and direct the crowns in different directions. You may not need to splicate - you get a "double" tree with two different varieties. For example, pollinated and pollinator. You can leave one. The main thing is that this tree will grow as reliably as purchased seedlings never dreamed of: health is like a wild animal. After all, the main stress is a transplant, and with it the main troubles are death and substitution during the sale. - excluded! This is invaluable both in the dry south and in the cold north.
Taproot is the main natural root of a seedling. It is deep and strong and imparts amazing strength and endurance to the tree. Since ancient times, clever northern monks laid their centenary gardens in this way. The way is called: "in a monastery". Caucasian Cossacks planted wild wilds right on the spot, in forest glades, simply clearing the future garden from other trees. Such gardens, grafted about a hundred years ago, are still alive - I saw them around Mezmai and in Khojokh  4
Mezmay is a mountain village on the Kurdzhips river, up from Apsheronsk. Khodzhokh, aka Kamennomostsky, is a village above Maikop. Both this and that are the surroundings of the Lago-Naki plateau.
[Close]. The inhabitants of the dry steppes did the same: here the "core" is the only salvation. Smart Siberians do the same: in early spring they twist into the root collar of a seedling by copulating. Seedlings of apricots and plums over the summer grow branched, almost as tall as a person. And if you are grafted onto a two-year-old stock, like V.K.Zhelezov, they are driven three meters each, with two dozen branches and pods! And mind you, this is not fattening, but development force (fig. 1).
I don’t suggest southerners, summer residents, to seedlings: we do not need giants. But also a dwarf rootstock rooted by a cutting in place, - not at all like a double transplanted!
This is not a utopia - this, brothers, is a NORMAL GARDEN LAYOUT. In nature, no one digs seedlings or offspring from the moment they appear. There is only one reason to take seedlings out of the ground: they are a commodity... They need to be transported and sold. So: I propose to cancel these shipments. Let them remain the practice of the highest professionals, let them be only a forced measure for amateurs - but not a universal gardening "religion"! Let's agree on this and exchange cuttings of the best varieties ourselves. And if you pay, then only for a guarantee of a healthy varietal tree - for grafting.
"But isn't there a way to sell reliable, viable seedlings ?!" - you will be indignant. Of course there is - in theory. But in reality they are mastered by a few, like A.I. Kuznetsov in the village of Altaysk or V.K.Zhelezov in Sayanogorsk. Kuznetsov saplings grown on organic sawdust soil retain the ENTIRE root system during excavation (Fig. 2 and 3). For this, Alexander had to create his own agronomy. And its result speaks for itself: people come from all over Siberia for seedlings.
Seedlings of Zhelezov - either grafted onto seedlings, the seeds of which germinated almost on the surface and developed strong nourishing roots, or container ones. The future belongs to container seedlings. Planted with a solid, intact root system, they take root well.
In addition, the south, north and Siberia are completely different countries. Everywhere their own, often opposite, ways to grow a reliable seedling. And garden magazines and books are read the same!
In areas of confident gardening, that is, in Europe, the Black Earth Region and in the Russian south, all nurseries have been solving the transplant problem for a century and a half, forming seedlings fibrous root system artificially. It is located near the surface, and the seedling becomes transportable.
This is how it is done. At the beginning of June, seedlings that have gone into growth are taken out of the soil, the core root is cut off and planted in place. That's what it is pick... In this case, the root branches and gives lateral processes - lobes (Fig. 4). In July - August, the seedling is cultivated with a cultivar. For the winter, the grafted seedlings are taken out again, the long roots are cut again and stored. This, of course, is labor, but losses from frost, icing, mice, horses, people are always more expensive. All the next summer, the seedling grows: the varietal shoot is gaining strength, and the wild is gradually cut off. In the fall, before the sale, the long roots are cut again. The result is a thick beard of roots, among which the main one no longer stands out. Having dug out such a seedling, we get, in addition, almost all of its root system. If everything was done carefully and competently, the chances of settling down are much higher. For comparison: if you dig up an unpicked seedling, you will chop off 85% of the roots with a shovel. Almost all of them are already in the subsoil.
Judging by our seedlings, they, with rare exceptions, are never taken out of the soil at all: there is no time, no hands, hard work, you have to pay. And their roots grow for two years, mainly in depth. The sapling grows strong - lovely sight! I would leave it in place, I would live for a hundred years. But he will not live, perhaps, and three. In the fall, the main root is chick! - and to the market. Instead of roots - something like a chopped off skinny "carrot" (Fig. 5 and 6). And you haven't cut it off yet - you poked it as it is. Spring has come, buds are on the way out - but there are no roots! While the tree grows them, it will suffer for a year, or even two or three, not giving growth and throwing out the fruit in panic  5
Fruit - with this word, for simplicity, I mean all the fruit organs of all trees. Everything that gives flowers: different ringlets, spurs and spears, fruit twigs and bouquet twigs.
[Close] - have time to give birth to seeds before dying. The seedling grows old instantly, not having time to grow.
Have you seen such trees? And even rejoiced at the apple born in the first year? Alas, it was not born from a good life. This way of "accelerating fruiting" is the best way to ditch the garden. “… Such trees are worthless, since they are deprived of root lobes, the loss of seedlings during transplantation is so great that surviving trees are too expensive, and even these trees cannot recover for a long time,” wrote RI Schroeder about such seedlings  6
Schroeder Richard Ivanovich - a great Russian gardener, nursery grower, chief agronomist of the park and garden of the Petrovskaya Academy (Timiryazevka).
[Close]. And in the south, but on the loam, they are also finished off by the summer drought!
And here is another symptom of planting disease: we are so accustomed to such seedlings that we consider their "overbalance" and their frequent death almost the norm. God forbid! A seedling with developed root lobes, and even grown in a container, starts to grow as easily as a daffodil bush, like wheatgrass. Or almost like an untouched seedling. At least one meter increment in the first year. You often see this norm.
It is high time for the southerners to breed dwarf rootstocks. It is easy to distinguish seedlings on dwarfs: they do not have a taproot, and in general there are no thick roots - a solid "washcloth" of equally thin roots, thick and thick. Natural beard.
Dwarfs are now created for almost all crops, zones and soils; they are bred in any research institute and at any experimental station. All of them reproduce vegetatively - they are cut without problems, like currants. I planted the cutting in its place, in a year I planted it - and the tree grows. And the trees on them are toys: small, compact, all in fruit (Fig. 7). One problem with them: you need to know them. So what's up? I will study and describe! In the meantime, I give the instruction: study, search, breed and plant good dwarfs. A dozen bushes of different rootstock shapes near the fence are the basis and beginning of any smart garden. Science created them. It is your task to take them from her!
In Siberia and the harsh Non-Black Earth Region, reliable and frost-resistant gardens are obtained on the seedlings of local frost-resistant species and semi-crops. Almost everything depends on the roots, and ideally graft on site. If we are to transplant, then only with a large and solid earthy clod, in boxes and containers. When you see market seedlings with open chopped roots, walk around them a block away, saying a prayer of protection!
The tale of hemp and fungus - tinder fungus
The mosquito was vitally interested in the arrival of guests ...
According to my observations, now in the Kuban dachas more than half of the cherries, sweet cherries, apricots and almost all plums and peaches are infected rotten wood - tinder fungus. His favorite food is stone fruits. There are many tinder fungi in Siberia, but there they are held back by the cold and short summer. And in the Kuban they are like a runny nose. This is our climate. “Living trees in gardens are covered with caterpillars, moss, mushroom-like growths and ulcers that drain their abundant juices, and in the core are affected by consumptive rot... These phenomena are joined by frequent fogs and very abundant dews, ”wrote the historiographer of the Kuban ID Popka in 1858.
Polypore is a devourer of dead wood. First he poisons her, then he eats. In fact, the same mushroom, but inedible. Penetrates through rotting stumps left after pruning, through torn, broken, wounds that do not dry for a long time after rain. Seeing his ear-shaped fruiting bodies (Fig. 8), do not think that he lives only under the bark! If it has already "borne fruit", be sure: it has been growing for 6–8 years already and has mastered almost the entire tree.
The mycelium moves upward along the loose core, penetrating into the growing branches. One annual ring is eaten every year  7
The tree ring is actually a “tree tube”, “stocking”. All new outer timber built by cambium over the summer.
[Close], and the dead, brown core expands - this can be seen in the sections. Cutting a live branch and brown sawdust inside? This is it, darling. So they live: the tree grows new rings, and he, the parasite, eats the old ones. Drying out of small twigs and lower branches, lifeless graying and blackening of the bark on not old wood, release of gum (wood glue) are typical symptoms of the prosperity of this cute living creature.
A strong tree has time to "run away" from the mushroom: outer layers of wood and young branches remain healthy. But now there is a drought or overload, growth has weakened, and the mushroom is catching up, catching up. At the same time, the tree does not die, it fights for life: it gives birth to a trifle and sheds an ovary, loses branches and desperately throws out young shoots - tops. Just like in the north after frostbite. Do you recognize your stone fruits? If not, either you do not have stone fruits, or you are a great gardener!
The tinder fungus does not mend much evil with seedlings: for some reason he eats them very slowly - for about thirty years. Stone fruits render unusable in 10-15 years. He loves peaches so much that at the age of 5-6 you no longer want to work with them.
It seems impossible to get rid of him. But there is a chance that it can be stopped. Here are the tips. When in Melitopol cherries began to die from bacterial cancer, they invented a way to heal trees: they drilled holes in the trunk to the core, and with the help of a tube they "soldered" a bucket of a weak solution of zinc sulfate to the tree. Recently I heard from a friend: she also made the plum drink with copper sulphate - from a tinder fungus. He says there seems to be an effect. Let's try.
Especially favorable for tinder fungi are thick, overgrown and “slaughtered  8
To cut a tree - cut all strong growths with a lopper for several years. It turns out a thick vertical broom, covered with wounds.
[Close] »gardens. In the shade, the wood grows slowly, and the tinder fungus catches up with the tree faster. In addition, the wounds do not dry longer - it is more convenient for spores to germinate. The same if there is no growth: the tree does not grow, but the tinder fungus - how! In swampy and flooded places, where the work of the roots is weakened, all our peaches, cherries and cherries die in the prime of life.
The fungus penetrates the wood where it can be absorbed into the wood and then use the moisture. The first such place is a rotting stump from a cut rootstock, made with a blunt pruner - it crushes rather than cuts. Alas, a rare gardener now works with a knife, and in general with a sharp tool. Basically, the stumps are left so sticking out that they do not overgrow for two to three years. It is through this stump that the seedling “grabs” the spore (Fig. 9).
For reference, the classic preparation of seedlings is as follows. In May, when the scion grows, the rootstock is cut off, leaving half a meter above the graft (thorn). It is still impossible to remove the entire rootstock: it alone nourishes the roots - the wound will overgrow poorly, it also serves as a support for a growing varietal shoot. For half a summer, the thorn is kept alive, but they are not allowed to grow - they pinch its shoots so that it does not get fat. In July, the scion is thicker than the thorn. Here they take a sharp knife or pruner, and cut the thorn with an accurate oblique cut. It is unlikely that the spore will pass through a smooth cut, but it is also smeared with a pitch. By the fall, such a cut is completely tightened.
Siberians, who are already losing wood from frost, try not to have any wounds on the seedlings at all. They do not inoculate with an eye - they only copulate on the root collar of the stock in early spring. By the fall - a two-meter branchy tree, and no wounds from vaccination at all.
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Have you ever been to a British garden? Oooh, this is a real work of art! It seems that only the British can plant flowers such as thistle, burdock and fennel, and then admire, looking at them: "... aren't they beautiful?" This is the real harmony of Man and Nature .. Probably, it is necessary to explain to the readers a little what makes the English garden design different. The main thing in it is its naturalness. The basis is a lawn on which bushes are scattered - it is imperative that there are some that can be cut, giving them a decorative shape, and always something exotic, piece, and that the layout is interesting and original. Unpretentious flowers are combined with exquisite, for example, roses and, of course, undersized borders, although you can do without them.And instead of a fence made of honeysuckle, which seems to enclose the territory, but at the same time “leads” somewhere, giving a sense of space.
My love for the British garden was born in early childhood. I have read stories by Kipling, where the author compares England to a blossoming garden. Then my dream was born to build a house, and make the area around a garden, let it be a small piece of land, but it will definitely be called a garden, and complete harmony will reign in it ...
Today my dream has come true: I live in a house that my husband and I built ourselves, and my great love is my garden and green lawn.
It seems to me that they have some kind of magical power from which my guests and friends draw inspiration. The grass is like a soft carpet, and the trees not only give shade, but also call to constantly create something. I think that cultivating your own plot is the most romantic, creative and “artistic” hobby. My garden is a place where I can constantly experiment with something. I do this with flowers, trying to create new compositions and a new palette of colors - this is an expression of my creativity and mood. My husband loves to combine the beauty of stone and flowers in rockery - an alpine slide.
My family loves to spend time in the garden. Here we organize picnics, relax, make plans for the future and just enjoy the beauty.
We have planted many tulips this year, and their delicate scent fills the garden with the freshness and charm of spring.
I like to go out in the garden in the morning and say to them: “Good morning! I'm glad you're here! " And I am sure that they are also whispering something back to me ... Maybe this is the beauty that FM wrote about. Dostoevsky?
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Have you ever been to a British garden? Oooh, this is a real work of art! It seems that only the British can plant flowers such as thistle, burdock and fennel, and then admire, looking at them: "... aren't they beautiful?" This is the real harmony of Man and Nature .. Probably, it is necessary to explain to the readers a little what makes the English garden design different. The main thing in it is its naturalness.
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I have been dealing with blackberries for about ten years. I plant in trenches about 40 deep, 30 cm wide and about a meter long. Digging, I throw the bottom layer of the earth aside. I pour leaves, manure, humus at the bottom of the trench, return the topsoil and plant seedlings.
My variety is creeping, so I grow it on a two-plane trellis 1.8 m high - like grapes. On one plane I tie the trellis young, and on the second - fruiting shoots. In the spring, young shoots that have grown up to 30 cm are pinned to the ground with hooks. Later, when the shoots grow vertically to a meter height, I pinch the tops of them. I also pinch the stepsons growing out of their sinuses when they are about 60 cm long. I shorten the second-order shoots to 30 cm. Thus, a “tree” is formed, which will yield the next year.
Shoots inclined in spring are easy to fit in autumn. I tie them with sheaves, pin them to the ground, cover them with leaves, then - with cardboard and on top - with film or fiberglass. I lay the blackberries without breaking the leaves.
Fruiting shoots are immediately cut out at the root. I leave no more than 4-5 young shoots in the bush.
In the spring, having raised the bushes, I dig a groove along the planting trench and fill it with leaves, which I used to cover the blackberries for the winter. I cover the leaves with earth and water, adding to each bucket 30 g of wood ash and st. spoon of urea. Later I feed it with infusion of grass, chicken droppings, horse manure (one liter of infusion per bucket of water). I don't let the soil dry out between waterings. I will definitely loosen it. I pour chopped grass and humus along the trench. I am not fond of chemical fertilizers.
And also inhabited a blackberry trench with worms that turn organic matter into humus. So I am confident in the ecological purity of my berries.
I propagate blackberries by pinning and sprinkling with soil at the end of July the ends of the shoots. With regular watering, ready-to-plant plants grow by the fall. I plant in one and a half meters.
If you want to get seedlings, to see how I grow blackberries in the spring, call 77-02-90.
In place of the cut out branch on the trunk of the apple tree, a hollow has formed. How to fix it?