On January 30, 2007, I was lucky enough to visit the Palace of Culture. CM. Kirov at a meeting with the famous potato breeder N.M. Hajiyev. He and his wife V.A. Lebedeva, a breeder in the second generation, in the most difficult years for the Russian agricultural science, created a breeding company "Liga" and was actively engaged in and continues to breed new potato varieties, striking everyone with their efficiency and some special flair for selection.
Since I have long been engaged in the cultivation of many varieties of potatoes created by these scientists, and some of them I tested on my site even before they were included in the State Register, now I want to tell the readers about them, taking into account what I heard at the meeting and my personal experience. I believe that the promising high-yield potato varieties of these scientists are varieties of the 21st century. And now I want to introduce them to the readers of the magazine.
Spring. Zoned since 1978. Ultra-early variety, yield up to 500 c / ha. The average tuber weight is 80-140 g, 9-15 tubers ripen on the bush. The variety has a high marketability even when harvested early. Tubers contain 12-16% starch. Keeping quality is good. Resistant to cancer, highly resistant to macrosporiosis, moderately resistant to viral diseases and relatively resistant to tubers late blight... Tubers are pink, oval, with small raspberry eyes. The bush of this variety is of medium height, erect, lodging when ripe, leaves are large, light green, strongly dissected. Short-term flowering, lilac flowers. Mainly suitable for use as fresh early potatoes.
Spring is white. Zoned since 1994. The difference from the Vesna variety is only in the color of the tubers.
Bullfinch. Zoned since 2001. Early ripening variety. Its yield is up to 628 kg / ha. The average number of tubers on a bush is 11-15 pieces. Marketability 90%. The taste is excellent, boiled potatoes are semi-crumbly. Starch content in tubers is up to 20%. Resistant to cancer, highly resistant to macrosporiosis. Medium resistant to common scab and viral diseases. It is quite resistant to late blight in tubers. Tubers are pink, round-short-oval (very beautiful). The eyes are small, pink. The pulp is white. The bush is upright, of medium height. Flowering is short, lilac flowers with white tips.
In the 2006 season, in my vegetable-potato crop rotation, I grew the Bullfinch variety. With layering, I got a yield of 13 kg / m. For comparison: my friend by correspondence V.R. Gorelov from the Kemerovo region received a yield of 14 kg / m from potatoes of an unknown variety. This event was recorded in the Guinness Book of Records in 1989.
Lark. Average yield up to 400 c / ha, marketability 93-95%. The number of tubers on a bush is 8-12 pcs. Tubers are white, short-oval, slightly flattened. The eyes are small, white. The pulp is slightly creamy. Tubers are friable during cooking, very tasty. The starch content in tubers is 17-21%. Lark resistant to common scab and viral diseases. Weakly resistant to macrosporiosis, relatively resistant to late blight. The flowering is rather long, the flowers are lilac. According to my observations, the variety has excellent keeping quality during long-term storage.
League. Since 2005, it has been passing the Gossort test. Early. Universal. High-yielding. Starch 16-29%. The taste is great. Resistant to cancer, golden potato nematode, relatively resistant to late blight, common scab, viral diseases. The tubers are white oval (very beautiful), the eyes are very small, the flesh is slightly creamy. The keeping quality of tubers is good. Suitable for chips.
Wizard. Zoned since 2000. Mid-early variety, white tubers weighing 80-120 g, contain 18-22% starch and have an excellent taste. Semi-crumbly during cooking. Marketability 92-95%. It is not afraid of breaking off the sprouts, there is no "detachment" of tubers. Resistant to cancer, moderately resistant to macrosporiosis, common scab. Highly resistant to late blight. As the breeders said, even in 1998, when the cool and damp summer created the most favorable conditions for the development of late blight, and the aerial part of almost half of the varieties - and in the collection of the Liga breeding company there are more than 100 of them, both domestic and foreign varieties, - completely blackened and completely died out due to the defeat of late blight, the Sorcerer remained completely green. Only a few spots on the lower leaves indicated that it was very weakly affected by this disease. And there were no infected tubers at all, while in some varieties the loss of tubers from late blight reached 51%.
In 1997, on the contrary, the summer was very dry and hot. Potatoes suffered from a lack of moisture - the tops of many varieties constantly lost their turgor, and then turned yellow and dried out ahead of time. But not with the Wizard! Its root system is so powerful that even in drought conditions it allows the plants of this variety to remain green and vigorous.
Large tubers of the Sorcerer do not have voids inside. The cultivar blooms profusely and has a pleasant scent with large white flowers. At one time, I, growing the Sorcerer variety, awarded him the title "All-weather".
Story. Zoned since 2004. The variety has a medium-early ripening period. Its average yield is approximately 400 kg / ha. The marketability of tubers is 85-88%. The taste is very good. The starch content in tubers is 14-17%. The variety is resistant to cancer. Medium resistant to macrosporiosis, common scab and viral diseases. It has a very high degree of resistance to late blight. A distinctive feature of the Skazka variety is its multi-tuberity - it can produce up to 30 or more tubers per plant. The size of these tubers and, accordingly, the yield is highly dependent on the growing conditions. The variety prefers light loamy and sandy loam soils, developed peatlands. Doesn't like excessive moisture. Under favorable conditions, it can give a high yield even when grown from small tubers. For example, in the peasant farm "Natalino" in the Luga region in 1988, when planting 20 kg of fine-fraction tubers (20-30 g), a potato crop of 800 kg was obtained. Tubers in Skazka are round-oval, white, with pink spots of various shapes around the eyes. The eyes are small. The flowers are pale lilac with white tips.
Inspiration. Zoned since 2006. Medium early. Dining room. High-yielding - gives up to 500-600 c / ha. The starch content in tubers is 14-19%. The taste is very good. The pulp is white, dense, does not darken when cut. The variety is resistant to cancer, golden potato nematode, resistance to late blight is above average, relatively resistant to common scab. Weakly resistant to rhizoctonia, viral diseases. The tubers are white, long. The eyes are very small. Keeping quality of potatoes is good.
Scarlet sail. Medium early grade. Universal, high-yielding - 400-500 c / ha. High starchy - 18.5-23.3%. The taste is excellent, when boiled, these potatoes are semi-crumbly. The pulp is creamy. The variety is resistant to cancer, golden nematode, late blight. Relatively resistant to common scab, viral diseases. Tubers are intense pink (very beautiful), oval, small eyes. Their keeping quality is good. Suitable for mashing. Since 2007, he has been preparing for transfer to the State Variety Testing.
Danae. Medium early versatile variety. High-yielding - 400-500 kg / ha. The starch content in tubers is 15-18%. The taste is excellent. The pulp is slightly creamy. The variety is resistant to cancer, golden potato nematode, relatively resistant to late blight, common scab, viral diseases. Tubers are short-oval, slightly flattened, white. The keeping quality of the crop is good. The variety is suitable for making chips. Preparing for transfer to the State Variety Testing.
Shaman. In terms of ripening, this variety occupies an intermediate position between mid-early and mid-season varieties. It is multi-tuberous - it produces 25-30 tubers per plant. Tubers are oblong-oval, with a bright purple rind. The eyes are small, purple. The taste is good. It is relatively resistant to common scab, viral diseases and late blight. The yield of the variety reaches 400 c / ha. Stems are medium-branched with a spotted anthocyanin coloration. The flowers are pale blue with white tips. I did not present myself for the State Variety Test. Probably, breeders prefer to recommend it only to gardeners and gardeners.
In 1998, I propagated the Shaman variety by layering. From one large tuber, as a result, I received 227 neat, equal-sized seed nodules with a total weight of 10.2 kg. The mass of tubers would be greater if it were not for late blight. On August 22, I had to cut the tops, and the Shaman was not yet ripe.
Naiad. Zoned since 2004. Mid-season variety for universal use. It has excellent taste, boiled tubers are crumbly, with white flesh. The starch content in tubers in some years reaches 25%. Productivity 350-470 kg / ha. The variety is resistant to cancer, golden potato nematode, relatively resistant to late blight, common scab, viral diseases. Tubers are oval, white, eyes are small. The variety is suitable for making chips and for mashed potatoes.
For a long time, my wife loved the Dutch Agria variety known throughout Europe for its excellent culinary qualities. And for five years now, she has certainly been interested in me in the spring - have I forgotten to plant Naiad potatoes.
Peter's riddle. Zoned since 2005. Mid-season variety for table use. High-yielding - up to 450-550 c / ha. Good taste. The variety is resistant to cancer, highly resistant to late blight, rhizoctonia, relatively resistant to common scab, viral diseases, macrosporiosis. The keeping quality of the tubers is good, they are oval in shape (very beautiful), pink, the eyes are small, red.
Charm. Mid-season variety. The pulp is slightly yellow, does not darken when cut. The variety is resistant to cancer, golden potato nematode, relatively resistant to late blight, viral diseases, common scab. The tubers are yellow (very beautiful), round-oval, the eyes are very small. The pulp is creamy, does not darken when cut. They are suitable for making mashed potatoes and also for chips. Since 2006, the variety has been undergoing State Variety tests.
Purple Haze. The variety is mid-season. High-yielding - 400-600 c / ha. The starch content in tubers is 14-17.5%. Resistant to cancer, late blight. It is relatively resistant to common scab and viral diseases. Tubers are intense pink (very beautiful), short-oval, small and medium-sized eyes. The variety is being prepared for transfer to the State Variety Testing.
May flower. Mid-season variety. Yielding, multi-tuberous. The taste is excellent, boiled tubers are semi-crumbly. The variety is resistant to cancer, late blight, viral diseases, relatively resistant to common scab, rhizoctonia. The tubers are bright pink (very beautiful), oval, with small eyes. Suitable for making chips and purees. The variety is being prepared for transfer to the State Variety Testing.
Russian beauty. Mid-season variety for table use. The variety is resistant to cancer, relatively resistant to late blight, viral diseases, rhizoctonia, common scab.
Tubers are bright pink (very beautiful), oval, flattened. The eyes are small and medium. The variety is being prepared for transfer to the State Variety Testing.
I wish all gardeners and summer residents good harvests of potatoes and other crops!
experimental potato grower
More than 2000 varieties of potatoes are known. They vary greatly with respect to growth conditions, ripening time, disease resistance, taste of tubers, their chemical composition, etc.
According to the ripening time, potato varieties are divided into early, capable of ending the growing season long before the main digging of tubers and accumulating high yields in the early summer, mid-season, the tops of which usually completely die off for harvesting, and late ones, harvested with green tops.
A large varietal variety of potatoes allows for each natural zone to select varieties that best suit its characteristics and when to plant potatoes (depending on the climatic conditions of the region).
Lorkh. Medium late, very productive variety for universal use. It is weakly affected by diseases, but it is not resistant to cancer. Keeping quality and taste of tubers are good. The tubers are white, the corolla is red-violet.
Berlichingen. Medium late, versatile, high-yielding variety. Low taste. When storing potatoes, they tend to germinate early. Resistant to cancer, late blight is strongly affected. The tubers are oval, red, with more brightly colored eyes, the corolla is red-violet. Forms berries.
Ostbote. Medium late, medium yielding variety. High starchiness. Average taste. It is resistant to cancer, but it is strongly affected by late blight and black leg.
Voltman. Late, medium-yielding, factory. High starchiness. Keeping quality is good. It is weakly affected by diseases, but it is not resistant to cancer. The tubers are rounded, red, the eyes are deep, the corolla is red-violet.
Early rose. Early, canteen. Strongly affected by diseases, including cancer. Keeping quality is weak. The tubers are elongated, regular in shape, with shallow eyes, pink, the corolla is white. It is found everywhere.
Courier. Medium early, table-factory grade, with increased starchiness and good taste. Diseases are strongly affected, but resistant to cancer. The keeping quality is satisfactory and poor. The yield is average. Suitable for early processing. Tubers are elongated, with shallow eyes, white, white corolla, weak flowering. It is widely zoned, but especially suitable for the southern and southeastern regions.
Oktyabrenok. An early, table-factory, high-yield variety. High starchiness. Average taste. Keeping quality is good. Resistant to cancer, relatively weakly degenerates, late blight is strongly affected. Tubers are white, medium-sized, with an increased percentage of fines, the corolla is red-violet. Forms berries. Zoned widely. Suitable for crops in irrigated areas in the south, responds well to watering during the growing season.
The Nevsky medium-early potato variety is very popular, which is discussed in a separate article on our website.
Potatoes "Aspia" are mid-ripening varieties. The peel and pulp are white, slightly reticulate, the tubers are round. The yield reaches 420 kg per hundred square meters, with a root crop mass up to 110 g and a starch content of 11-13%. The taste is good. Gives an excellent harvest on loamy soils, is well stored for a long time, responds well to fertilization in the soil.
The representative of medium late potatoes - the variety "Zhuravinka", has found its application among large farmers and amateur gardeners in the Central region of Russia. It has oval-rounded roots, covered with a red skin with pale yellow flesh. With good care, you can achieve yields of up to 250 kg per hundred square meters. The harvested potatoes keep well and taste great.
Early and mid-season varieties potatoes. Domestic potato varieties form the basis of varietal resources in potato growing in Russia, as well as varietal policy in the industry. Many domestic potato varieties compare favorably with foreign analogues, especially in terms of their adaptability to growing conditions, disease resistance, dry matter and starch content, which determine stable indicators of the taste of tubers.
One of the outstanding achievements of domestic breeding is the creation of potato varieties that combine a high level of horizontal resistance to late blight with early and medium-early ripening. I will give a description of some common potato varieties.
Early maturing variety. Tubers are round-oval in shape, white, smooth peel, tuber eyes are small, numerous. Good taste. Disease resistance is average. The pulp is white. Tuber weight 100-170 g.
Early maturing, high-yielding variety with good taste. The tubers are round, white with a creamy shade. Resistant to late blight, viruses and scab. The peel is smooth, the eyes are small, few in number, the flesh is white, not darkening when cut. The flowers are red-blue-violet with white tips. Tuber weight 100-140 g.
Early maturing, high-yielding variety. Good taste. Tubers are round, white, eyes are small, few in number. The pulp is white, does not darken when cut. There are many tubers in the nest, sometimes up to 16 pieces, the tuber weight is 90-110 g. The variety is resistant to late blight and other fungal diseases. The flowers are reddish-purple with white tips. The cultivar requires loose soil with high doses of nutrients (organic and mineral).
Early maturing, high-yielding variety, resistant to blackleg, viral and fungal diseases. Tubers are round, white, large, fruit weight 90-140 g. The bush is high. The color of the flowers is white. The keeping quality of tubers during storage is good. The variety responds well to increased doses of fertilizers and grows well on loamy and sandy loam soils.
Mid-season, fruitful, has good taste. Tubers are white, rounded, with a blunt apex. The flesh of the tuber is white, crumbly, does not darken when cutting, the weight of the tuber is 100-190 g. Flowers are pale red-violet, flowering is abundant, long-lasting. Disease resistant.
Mid-season, fruitful, good taste. Weakly or not at all affected by late blight, resistant to viral diseases. Tubers are round, white, large, weighing 100-150 g. The flesh is white, does not darken when cut. The flowers are large, white. The variety requires higher doses of both mineral and organic fertilizers in the form of compost.
Mid-season, fruitful, excellent taste. Tubers are round, white, white flesh, does not darken when cut. The flowers are large, white, with blue petals on the outside. Tuber weight 110-120 g. Average resistance to diseases. In dry periods, it requires watering.
Mid-season, high-yielding, good taste. The tubers are white, round, large, the skin is smooth, the eyes are small. Fruit weight 100-160 g. White flowers. Keeping quality is good. Requires an increased dose of fertilizers.
Mid-season, high-yielding, good taste. Resistant to late blight, scab and viral diseases. Tubers are white, large, oval in shape. The pulp is white, does not darken when cut. The flowers are white. Fruit weight 110-160 g. This variety is best grown on cultivated loamy soils with the use of increased doses of fertilizers, especially nitrogen fertilizers.
Mid-season, high-yielding, very good taste. Round tubers, light yellow to yellow flesh, weight 110-160 g. Flowers are large, white, abundant flowering. Disease resistant.
TABLE LARGE-FORMED C / U VARIETIES REFERRED TO IN LISTS # 1 and # 4:
- has shown itself well in the Moscow region, the Oryol region and in the Novgorod region.
- behaves reliably both here and in Siberia. Very sugary. In a damp summer, the berries can crack. Withstood a very harsh winter of 2003 at the level of BCHZ and Zilgi (see below).
KISHMISH ZAPOROZHSKY (50)
- in the Moscow region it is stable, the vine often ripens better than in Vostorgov.
SUMMER MUSKAT (31)
- matures to Novgorod and normally accumulates sugar.
- reliable up to Novgorod. In a damp summer, it can be affected by gray rot and powdery mildew. Better and more stable with short trimming of the arrows (4-5 buds).
- behaved well in Omsk. It is rapidly gaining momentum in the northern regions.
- proved to be very stable in the Moscow region, Smolensk and Saratov regions.
- has proven itself well in all districts, including the Tula and Leningrad regions. Even in these places it accumulates enough sugar and is suitable for winemaking.
The varieties of the Samara selection, according to the masters, did not show high resistance to diseases, and are now being replaced by to / u varieties.
In the Saratov region, the following are popular: Delight red, Arched, Kishmishi No. 311 and No. 342, Arcadia, Victoria, Denal, Atlant Zaporozhye, Augustine (there it is called the Phenomenon), Crystal, Maradona (PG-12), American raisins (seedlings).
In the Oryol region the following are highly appreciated: Kodryanka, Delight, Delight oval (Baklanovsky), Augustine, Arcadia, Timur and evenIn memory of Negrul, although it does not always mature.
Starting from the latitude of the Moscow region, as well as throughout Siberia, most of these varieties spend the entire period of spring frosts under a film shelter.
TABLE VARIETIES FROM LIST # 1, PERSPECTIVE FOR TESTS:
FOR SIBERIA, THE BALTIC AND BELARUS - all the same, plus not the most disease-resistant: The very early elegant, Wax.
DINING, UNIVERSAL AND TECHNICAL VARIETIES OF EARLY AND VERY EARLY RIPENING, NOT ON LIST # 1:
118. CORINKA RUSSIAN (VNIIGiSPR)
- raisins with small, very sweet amber-pinkish berries. Average frost resistance - it is necessary to cover. Suffered from mildew. Ripens a week earlier than any grape. The yield is below average, but the quality of the berries is excellent.
119. KOSMONAVT, or Black Early (VNIIGiSPR)
Is a vigorous variety with purple berries and medium-sized clusters. The taste is simple. Requires a thick layer of snow for cover. Prone to disease. Behaves well in Siberia and Belarus. In the Moscow region, it is poorly tied, the yield is low.
120. BEAUTY OF THE NORTH, or OLGA (VNIIGiSPR)
- a very stable and frost-resistant variety, one of the best northern varieties. Large-fruited table variety with a simple, harmonious taste. Suffered from mildew. Zoned in the Voronezh region. One of the best in Siberia.
121. RUSSIAN AMBER (VNII GISPR)
- light table variety with medium-sized bunches and berries. The taste is harmonious, with nutmeg. Frost resistance up to -26 °, low yield. Resistant to powdery mildew, but in 2003 it was partially affected by mildew.
Of the most common varieties of Moscow selection (TSKHA), two did not suffer from mildew:
122. MOSCOW SUSTAINABLE (K. P. Skuin, TSKHA)
- disease-resistant, very frost-resistant variety of Moscow selection, uncovered in the Moscow region. The berries are white with a weak isabelle aroma. The wine is of medium quality. The variety for beginners is one of the most reliable in the Moscow region (V.A.Fedchenko).
123. LYUBAVA (TSKHA)
- very promising, resistant to mildew and oidium, quite tasty and stable. The yield is average.
124. Alyoshenkin (so F.I.Shatilov christened the variety Alyosha, deduced by P.E. Tsekhmistrenko, Volgograd)
- large-fruited, very stable, frost-resistant variety with tasty amber berries. With poor pollination, it is almost seedless. Does not withstand overload - it must be normalized. One of the best in terms of the sum of the signs - apart from disease resistance. Matures in the most cloudy summer. Suffered at the appearance of mildew, unstable to powdery mildew. Winters under straw and snow at –34 ° С.
Two varieties of Kiev are popular in Siberia:
125. KIEVSKY WHITE, or, apparently, KIEVSKY LARGE (CRBS Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev)
- a light variety with a weak isabelle aroma. Prone to overload, but holds it well. Demanding on soil fertility.
126. SOLOVYOVA-58 (for amateurs - KIEVSKY-58. Variety N.V. Slovyova, Kiev)
- white nutmeg table variety with medium-sized bunches and berries. The yield is high, very stable. Resistant to mildew and gray mold. In Omsk, it ripens in late August - early September. In Novgorod and other areas of the "cloudy zone", both varieties need a film in the spring.
127. AMBER, Amber Tsekhmistrenko (according to some reports, the variety was introduced into the culture by P.E. Tsekhmistrenko)
- uncovered for the Moscow region, winters at -34 ° C, bears fruit annually. Berries of medium size, yellowing, sweet. The name is apparently amateur.
- a successful natural hybrid of two Americans: Labrusca and Riparia. Extremely frost-hardy - uncovered in all zones, up to Novgorod. It is similar to Isabella both in appearance and in taste, but ripens much earlier. It blooms in any year 10-12 days earlier than Muromets and Rapture. Very yielding, unpretentious and disease resistant. It is zoned in Primorye, distributed in Siberia and the Non-Black Earth Region.
129.ZILGA (P. Sukatniek, Latvia)
- isabelny universal variety. Very winter-hardy - in the Moscow region you can not shelter. Bisexual, blue berry, medium sized clusters. Resistant to cracking, mildew and powdery mildew. Does not suffer from wasps. The yield is average, but ripens in the worst years. One of the earliest uncovered varieties for northern viticulture.
THE MOST POPULAR VARIETIES OF THE SIBERIAN BREEDING:
132. AMURSKY 2
- a hybrid of two forms of Amur. Ultra-early, black, canteen-technical. Berries and clusters of medium size. Harmonious taste (sugar - up to 20%), varietal tone, small seeds. Productivity up to 10 kg. Uncovering. Produces delicious juices and high-quality, aromatic wines.
In Siberia, Amurskiy 3 and Amurskiy 4 are also popular - ultra-early hybrids close to those mentioned.
133. IN MEMORY OF SHATILOV (photo 49)
- very hardy. Bunches up to 1.5 kg. Bears fruit in Serov. Matures in the most cloudy summer.
134. MUSKAT WHITE SHATILOVA
- a hybrid with a very large leaf, bunches of 0.5-1 kg, ripens in the Chelyabinsk region on September 5-15. Vigorous, very productive, resistant to gray mold and powdery mildew. The berry is oval, large, very tasty. Fruiting in Serov, 450 km north of Yekaterinburg.
135. WHITE SUPER HIGH YIELD
- Shatilov's large berry hybrid. The name gives its full description.
136. ChBZ (Black seedless winter-hardy, named by F.I.Shatilov IN MEMORY OF DOMBKOVSKAYA aka BCHR
- b. h. early, possibly, it is the very early seedless black. Bred, most likely, in the city of Buzuluk) - tasty, sweet and fruitful raisins with medium-sized black berries. The skin is thin, the bunch is dense - sometimes it can rot. It is frost-hardy down to -30 ° C and winters under straw (roofing felt) and snow. One of the best for Omsk in terms of the amount of features. Stable in Siberia and north of Moscow. Matures in the wettest summer. Hangs on bushes until cold weather, quite resistant to powdery mildew, can be affected by gray rot and wasps. Suffered from mildew.
- a form of Amur grapes found in Primorye in the pre-war years. Dark cherry berries, 3-3.5 g, clusters up to 300 g. Withstands the most cunning thaws, severe frosts, drought, frosts down to -42-45 ° С. The growth is powerful, at the level of the rootstocks - lashes of 5-7 m. The yield of an adult bush reaches a centner (TG Ivanova). Like Amur grapes in general, they feel very good in the Volga region.
THE MOST VALUABLE ALTAI VARIETIES R.F. SHAROVA:
In Altai and Siberia, especially in windy regions, the varieties of R.F. Sharova are reliable and very easy to care for. Rostislav Fedorovich has done a colossal selection work. Having studied Michurin's works, he literally repeated them in Altai conditions. In the 60s, despite the skepticism of science, he began to cross our table varieties with selected forms of Amur, as well as among themselves. Seedlings were subjected to the most severe natural selection. The result of his forty years of work is two dozen ultra-early universal varieties with frost resistance of -35-38 ° С, fast ripening of vines and good taste. Bushes hibernate under the snow without shelter. They bear fruit even in Arkhangelsk. In Altai and Siberia, mildew is absent and oidium is very rare, and most varieties are poorly resistant to them. Some approach the quality of modern table varieties. The most valuable of them are:
138. Cheryomushka SIBERIAN
- the earliest of all varieties grown in Siberia. Outwardly similar to Isabella - medium-sized round blue berries. The taste is simple, with a cherry-like aroma. It can hang on the bush for a long time, improving the taste. Very winter-hardy, bears fruit north of Yekaterinburg.
- perhaps the largest-fruited, light table variety of Sharov. Harvested, late ripening - end of September in Biysk. Berries are oval, above average size, there are many seedless clusters of medium size. Tasty, does not rot, very hardy - hibernates under plant debris and snow.
140. LILAC BALL
- not covering for Chelyabinsk, a very early variety with red shoots and crowns, effective in landscaping. The clusters are small, the berries are lilac, medium-sized, sweet.
141. THE RIDDLE OF BALLS
- the most popular variety west of the Urals, R.F. Sharova. For the Moscow region, not covering (-32-34 ° С). The vines ripen early and well. Bunches and berries are small and medium-sized, dark blue, sweet, very pleasant taste, with a delicate strawberry aroma. In Biysk it ripens at the end of August. Keeps fresh until the New Year. In very damp years, protection against powdery mildew is needed. The yield is average.
142. GUIDING BALLS
- berries are white, sweet, of pleasant taste. Does not rot, is not damaged by wasps, is well stored.
- berries are larger than medium, white, when fully ripe with light nutmeg. Extremely hardy, no need to vaccinate.
144. KARA SHAROVA - blue, lined berries, large bunch, harmonious taste. It can hang on a bush for a long time, picking up sugar. Nice and decorative.
- blue, oval, medium and large berries of pleasant, distinctive taste. It can ripen for a long time on a bush without being damaged by diseases and wasps. Very early, very hardy. Many people like it even more frozen than fresh.
146. KAYA ALTAI
- berries are medium and large, oval, light, turning pink. The taste is pleasant, refreshing, rich. There are few seeds, some of the berries are seedless. Very thin skin - it can crack in the rain, protection from wasps is needed.
- berries are white, medium size, pleasant taste. The berries hang for a long time without being damaged. The variety was awarded the VDNKh medal in 1988.
- berries of medium size, black, pleasant taste.
149. MUSKAT SHAROVA BLACK (MSHCH)
- berries are dark blue, even, medium-sized. The taste is very pleasant, raisin. Very hardy. Does not rot, is not damaged by wasps.
150. SAVRASKA WHITE
- medium-sized white berries with a pleasant taste and small seeds. Does not rot, is not damaged by wasps. Hangs on the bush for a long time, accumulating sugar and acquiring aroma. When overloaded, the bunches loosen - it is necessary to normalize. The vines are thin, easy to bend down.
151. MUSKAT KATUNSKY
- exceptionally frost-hardy and stable, maturing amicably, fruitful, tasty nutmeg with large white-greenish berries and bunches. Selected and distributed by R.F. Sharov. We love both in Siberia and in the European part of the country.
The most large-fruited and tasty: Katyr-2, Dubinushka, Srostinsky-1, as well as Kaya, Altai Rose, Biysk Rose.
The longest are kept: Biysk-2, Otgadka, Katyr-2, Zagadka, MShCh, D. Thumbelina, Teremok (RF Sharov).
The best rootstocks: Teremok, Kakatyrsha, Buratino, Riddle, Cheryomushka, Cheburashka. In addition to winter hardiness, they quickly grow together with the scion, quickly take root and ripen early for winter (RF Sharov).
All mentioned varieties can be winter-hardy stock for grapes in Altai, they are not afraid of overload, the vine ripens quickly and amicably. They hibernate under the snow, bent to the ground and lightly sprinkled with plant debris.
It should be noted that winegrowers of the southern zones of Siberia with a stable snow cover (for example, Omsk and Novosibirsk) prefer covering, but more productive and large-fruited table varieties of the south to Sharov's varieties.
THE MOST VALUABLE FAR EASTERN VARIETIES
The first hybrids of Amur with European varieties in Primorye were created by N.N. Tikhonov and A.A. Ramming under the leadership of I.V. Michurin. The very early, frost-resistant varieties Chassela Ramminga and Far Eastern Ramminga were grown industrially after the war, but were not sufficiently resistant to mildew and frost. Since the 60s, the work was continued by D.M. Novikov and A.K.Bowes, and later - A.I. Vaskovsky. As a result, a number of valuable universal and wine varieties that are stable in the conditions of Primorye have appeared. Most of them are distinguished by the highest fruitfulness of shoots and high productivity. Many are exceptionally resistant to mildew, many are non-covering, with frost resistance up to 35-38 ° C.
152. KHASAN BOUSA
- extremely high-yielding and frost-resistant variety with a good taste.
153. KHASAN SWEET (A.K.Bous)
- similar to Khasansky Bousa, with a high accumulation of sugar. Popular in the Baltics.
Varieties D.M. Novikova They are distinguished by universal and table quality of berries, sufficient frost resistance and very high resistance to mildew.
Is a white variety with medium-sized bunches and berries. The taste is simple and pleasant. Immune to mildew, resistant to lack of heat and sun, unprotected.
155. ZEPHIR (obviously, often confused with a similar variety of Vaskovsky 84-45)
- one of the best in terms of the amount of features. Bunch and berry of medium size, pink, dessert taste. Immune to mildew, exceptionally frost-hardy - unprotected for the central regions of Primorye. Very harvestable.
156. FAR EAST NOVIKOVA
- very early, mildew resistant, very tasty variety. Bunches and berries of medium size. Shelter for Primorye.
157. MUSKAT FAR EAST
- extremely tasty, nutmeg variety. The berries are white, medium-sized. The yield is very high. Medium frost resistance - covering exceptionally resistant to mildew.
158. DALNE VOSTOCHNAYA
- a very early variety with medium-sized white berries and a simple but very sweet taste. Medium resistance to mildew.
Adeliy Ivanovich Vaskovsky - a talented, original breeder who passed away in 2001. In his work he used the mentor effect (the influence of the rootstock on the scion) and the telegenic method (telegenia - the preservation of information about the first sexual partner for life) to prepare the mother plant for crossing. The varieties are varied.
159. PINK NO SHELTER
- non-covering variety of the dining area. Very resistant to mildew. Harvested. The taste is great. One of the best varieties in terms of the sum of qualities.
160. 86-AL-21, "KONFETKA"
- a variety with an exceptionally dessert taste, very sweet black berries of medium size. Covering, resistance to mildew is average.
- a dark variety with a very large bunch, very yielding. The taste is simple and pleasant. Very resistant to mildew.
- dessert, very sweet variety of medium ripening. The berries are pink, medium in size. The yield is very high. Exceptionally resistant to mildew.
163. No. 41, ADEL
- one of the best wine varieties. Not covering, ripens with a lack of heat and sun, very resistant to mildew. Top quality juice and wine. Possesses pronounced medicinal properties.
164. No. 5 VASKOVSKY
- the most frost-resistant, non-covering. Productivity is the highest - practically no fruitless eyes. Berries are black, medium in size, clusters are larger than medium. There is not much sugar. Requires protection from mildew.
165. №6 VASKOVSKY - very frost-hardy, high resistance to mildew, medium and large bunch. The taste is good. In some years, it can be peas.
1. It should be especially noted that the northern varieties, born far from diseases, on loose soils and in a cool, rather humid climate, in our south feel extremely bad. In addition, in terms of quality and presentation - the size of berries and bunches - most of them are much inferior to southern varieties.
But the main thing is that almost all of them are unstable to diseases. Therefore, the southerners are not chasing these varieties.
2. For the last 10-15 years, unstable early southern varieties have been brought to Siberia - Central Asian, Crimean (NIIV "Magarach", Yalta), Bulgarian, Hungarian, Yugoslavian. Covering them well for the winter and keeping them under a film in the spring, Siberians quite confidently get the harvest of these varieties.
Therefore, the number of valuable varieties, to the envy of the southerners, in Siberia include: Amirkhan, Tukai, Pearl Saba, Grochanka, Early Karaburnu, Early Magaracha, Bulgaria, Cardinal, and even Rizamat and Khusayne white - varieties of medium ripening. In areas of mildew infestation, they can only be grown under canopies against the walls, or with constant chemical protection.
3. Highlights "PASMURY ZONE OF VINEYARDS" (areas north of the Orenburg - Nizhny Novgorod (Gorky) - Tula - Kiev line). It has more rainfall and fewer sunny days. Summers are colder and more cloudy here than in Southern Siberia.
An indicator of "cloudiness" can be considered behavior Delight: to the north of this line, its vine ripens poorly and the setting of fruit buds is unstable (Yu.V. Zotov). For stable yields, here it is necessary to accumulate heat in all possible ways, to arrange spring and autumn film shelters.
Nice summer in the Novgorod region colder than the worst in Voronezh. Every five years - late frosts and cold all season. G.F. Raspopov (Borovichi) notes as the most reliable for the region: Don Agate, Zilgu, Russian amber, Superearly seedless black. The vine ripens well at Rusbol, Rusven, Timur, Elegant, Victoria, Laura, Muscat Pleven. The prerequisites here are heat accumulation, the use of southern walls, short arrows with a large supply of wood.
In the Pskov region A.A. Kazarin does not cover Moscow resistant, Dviet blue (Baltic variety, frost-resistant up to -35 ° C), Lord, Yubileiny Novgorod - and they bear fruit well.
The president Latvian club of winegrowers and winemakers, the master of viticulture Guido Dobelis kindly informed that Labrus varieties created by Paul Sukatniek are popular in the Baltics. Five of them are more common than others: Supaga, Sukribe, Guna, Zilga and Veldze. The Gailunas varieties are also grown: Yadviga Gailunas, Shasla Gailunas, Yodupe, Teresa, Zhalzve. Many Baltic varieties were transferred to Belarus in exchange, and are quite common there.
Popular in the Baltics are also: Aleshenkin, Moscow steady, Krasa Severa (Olga), Khasansky sweet andJubilee Novgorod. All these varieties grow and mature normally in the Baltic climate, except for especially wet years. Isabella and other late varieties do not have time to ripen in the open field. Canteen varieties ripen well in film greenhouses or under spring film shelters. Donskoy agate in the Baltics it matures quite confidently even without shelter.
4... Middle and South Urals - an area with a complicated climate: in general, it is humid and cold, but the temperature, precipitation and snow cover vary greatly from year to year. Here, in the open field, the Baltic varieties feel good (Zilga, Yadviga Gailunas), as well as Moscow Sustainable, Jubilee of Novgorod, Severny Early, Alyoshenkin. And in an unheated greenhouse - White Muscat, Aivaz, Pineapple, Codryanka, Rusbol, Rusven, Delight, Elegant (A.N. Orlov, Krasnoufimsk).
5. FAR EAST - perhaps the most difficult region in terms of climate. Especially - Primorye. At the latitudes of Krasnodar and Rostov, it is much wetter and colder here. In the coastal zone, winters are mild, winds are frequent, in the first half of summer there are fogs and a lot of rain. In the continental zone, the climate is deliberately harsh - very cold winters with hot summers.
Ussuriysk, Arsenyev and Spassk Dalniy are climatically closest to Siberia (winter minimum -30-35, sometimes up to -45 °), there is quite a lot of snow, however, due to the greater number of sunny days and summer heat, the sum of active (above + 10 ° C) temperatures here - 2500-2600 °. This is the most difficult area for viticulture: cold winters require shelter, and hot, humid summers cause disease outbreaks. In Vladivostok, Partizansk and Nakhodka, winters are milder - the winter minimum is –20-25 °, rarely –30 °, the days colder than –20 ° are three times less. But summer begins only from the end of July - and before that there are frequent fogs, drizzle, rains, and it is very cool. Because of this, the sum of temperatures here - in the south of Primorye - is much less: 2200-2300 °, in Patizansk - up to 2400 °.
And yet Partizansk and Arseniev are blessed, warm lands for Primorye residents. The coldest regions are Dalnegorsk and Ternei. Here the grapes are covered with a film not only in spring, but also in autumn, for additional warmth and ripening. Only early and early-medium local varieties ripen reliably - they are ready by mid-September, and super-early ones by mid-August.
V.V. Salomaya in Nakhodka bear fruit well Kesha-1, Codryanka, Laura, Maradonna (PG-12), Odessa early, as well as Aleshenkin, Lydia, Druzhba, Solnechny, Vaskovsky's Souvenir, Khasansky Bous. The dark Chinese variety is well adapted to local conditions. Zi-Dong The seedlings of Chinese varieties allocated by him seemed promising to Valery Vasilyevich. Bushes grafted on Alpha, wake up earlier, winter and develop here much better than their own rooted ones.
According to O.A. Galvera (Partizansk), varieties created by local breeders A.I. Vaskovsky and D.M. Novikov. They are characterized by almost absolute fruitfulness, high yield and good taste (see in the list).
Americans are tasty and mildew resistant Edna and seedless Kenadays (in local - Canadian), but they are covering.
On the coast of northern Primorye, in Terney, European grapes survive only on the roots of local rootstocks: Alpha and wild Amur. For example, in Natalia Tatarinova's case, even Aleshenkin died three times without vaccination. But local varieties - Sputnik, Far East Muscat, Spassky, Far East seedless, Olesya Far East,Express (in Terney it ripens by the end of August), Adele - grow normally.
In the city of Arsenyev, after testing two hundred varieties, V.M. Meshkov left a dozen of the best. it Edna, Kanadik, Aleshenkin, Amirkhan, Tukai, Wilder, Adele, Mars and two of their gf - Arsenyevsky and Mikhalych.
For the southerners' information: according to the Department of Viticulture Cube GAU, the Far Eastern varieties resistant to the Amur race with mildew, to the European race, alas, did not show resistance. And vice versa. According to V.M. Meshkova, our Kodryanka, Rapture and Tomaysky, which are very stable in our country, completely lose their stability in Arseniev. This is a good example of the importance of local selection in breeding.
There are many Chinese grapes on the Primorye market, and it is difficult to compete with them. Mildew appears in separate foci, and does not commit atrocities everywhere. The last to / from varieties have not yet reached the Far East - help local craftsmen to buy them! Already now, many amateurs prefer to shelter Laura, Timur, Rusbol, but have table berries. Laura was especially fond of. Obviously, the varieties proposed for testing in the list No. 5 will behave well in the Far East.
In Khabarovsk and, even more so, in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, only very early and early varieties can be grown according to the Dalnegorsk technology (p. ...) - with a reliable dry shelter for the winter and film shelters in spring and autumn. There are no diseases there yet, and if the seedlings are well disinfected, God willing, and there will be none!