Cherries: planting and care, pruning, grafting, description of varieties, photos, diseases and pests


Fruit and berry plants

Plant cherry (lat.Cerasus) - a subgenus of the genus Plum of the Pink family. The Russian name for the tree comes from the same stem as the German Weichse, meaning "cherry", and the Latin viscum, which means "bird glue", so the original meaning of the name "cherry" can be defined as "a tree with sticky sap." The Latin name for the cherry cerasus comes from the name of the city of Kerasunda, on the outskirts of which delicious cherries grew in abundance, which the Romans called Kerasund fruits, hence the French cerise, Spanish cereza, Portuguese cereja, English cherry and Russian cherry, which the Romans called bird cherry.
In our article, we will focus on such a form as common cherry (Prunus cerasus), or sour cherry, about a plant that is a species of the subgenus Cherry and is grown in gardens everywhere. Some botanists believe that common cherry is a hybrid of sweet cherry and steppe cherry, which appeared as a result of natural selection somewhere in Macedonia, in the Dnieper region or in the North Caucasus. Common cherry is not found in the wild.

Planting and caring for cherries

  • Landing: in the spring, when the soil has already warmed up, but the buds on the trees have not yet opened.
  • Bloom: depending on the variety, from late April to late May.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • The soil: sandy, sandy loam or loamy, neutral reaction, in an area where groundwater is deep and water does not stagnate.
  • Watering: 3-4 times during the season: after flowering, during ovary formation, after harvest and in autumn, until October 20.
  • Top dressing: 3 root dressings in spring: 1st - before flowering with liquid nitrogen fertilizer, 2nd - during flowering with herbal "tea" or a solution of chicken droppings (1:10), 3rd - after flowering with compost or other organic mixtures. In the summer, two foliar fertilizing with nitrogen-containing preparations is carried out: in mid-July and after 3 weeks. Cherry is processed on leaves and solutions of missing microelements. After fruiting, nitrogen-containing organic fertilizers are applied. In autumn, the soil in the trunk circle is saturated with complete mineral fertilizer, and before winter - only with potassium and phosphorus.
  • Cropping: in spring, in March, before sap flow begins, and in autumn, at the end of the growing season. Sometimes in summer, after fruiting is complete.
  • Reproduction: seeds, cuttings, root processes, grafting.
  • Pests: plum moth, cherry and bird cherry weevils, slimy, social and pale-legged sawflies, subcrustal leafworm, cherry aphid, hawthorn.
  • Diseases: brown spot, clasterosporium, cherry mosaic and mosaic ringing, dying off of branches, scab, fruit rot, coccomycosis, moniliosis, root cancer, gum disease and witch's broom.

Read more about growing cherries below.

Botanical description

Cherry in the garden - a tree or shrub, reaching a height of about 10 m, with gray-brown bark. Cherry leaves, elliptical, pointed, petiolate, dark green above and lighter below, reach a length of 8 cm.White or pink flowers, collected 2-3 pieces in umbrella-shaped inflorescences, bloom in late March or early April. Blossoming cherry is one of the most beautiful plants in nature. The cherry fruit is a spherical, juicy, sweet and sour drupe about 1 cm in diameter. Fruiting begins in the second half of May.

Cherry planting

When to plant

The cherry is planted in the spring and this gives the seedling enough time to take root and grow. Cherries are planted when the soil has already warmed up enough, but the buds have not yet had time to open. Based on these requirements, the best time to plant cherries is mid-April, and the most suitable time of day is after sunset.

Cherries in the fall after planting are unlikely to have time to take root before the cold weather, because you cannot know in advance exactly when the autumn frosts will come. Therefore, it is best to dig in the seedlings harvested from autumn until spring.

Autumn planting

How to preserve cherry seedlings from autumn to spring if you only have them in late autumn? In a shady place in the garden, where snow lingers the longest in spring, an oblong hole 30-35 cm deep is dug, and it is necessary to dig with a slope of 45 º. In this short trench, planting material is laid with roots in a deeper side and the roots and a third of the trunk of the seedlings are covered with earth, after which the part of the plant covered with soil is watered abundantly. Then the sapling is lined with pine spruce branches along its entire length with needles outward so that rodents cannot get to the cherries.

As soon as the snow falls, throw it on the covered seedlings in a layer of 30-50 cm. Dig the seedlings just before planting.

How to plant cherries in spring

When planning to plant cherries in the spring, it is better to purchase seedlings in the fall, and then store them until spring, as just described. When buying, give preference to two-year-old trees with a stem about 60 cm high and a stem diameter of 2-2.5 cm. It is advisable that the skeletal branches of the cherry are also no shorter than 60 cm. Before planting, inspect the roots of the seedling, and if you find damaged or rotten areas, trim them to healthy tissue and treat the wounds with chopped charcoal. Hold the roots of the plant for 3-4 hours in water before planting so that they straighten and absorb moisture.

The soil on the plot for cherries is also prepared in the fall. Cherry loves well-sunlit places, drained sandy, sandy loam or loamy soil of a neutral reaction. Cherries should not be planted in places where groundwater is close, or in lowlands where melt water stagnates in the spring. If the soil on the site is acidic, scatter dolomite flour or lime over it at the rate of 400 g per m² and dig up the area to the depth of a shovel bayonet. Do not apply organic matter at the same time as lime, add compost or rotted manure to the soil at the rate of 15 kg per m² a week later than you introduced the deoxidizer.

If several trees are planted, they are placed at a distance of 3 m from each other. If your seedlings are cross-pollinated, you will have to plant at least four varieties in close proximity to each other, placing them in a 3x3 m pattern if the varieties are tall, and 2.5-2 m if the cherries are short. Self-pollinated cherry varieties do not need pollinators.

The planting pit should be about 80 cm in diameter and 50-60 cm deep. The upper, fertile soil layer should be removed and mixed with humus in an equal amount, while adding 1 kg of ash, 30-40 g of superphosphate and 20-25 g of chloride to the soil mixture potassium. A bucket of sand is also added to the clay soil. Drive a high peg into the center of the hole so that it protrudes 30-40 cm above the surface of the site.Pour soil mixture with fertilizers on the bottom around the peg with a cone, place a seedling on this hill from the north of the peg so that the root collar of the tree is 2- 3 cm above surface level. Spread the roots of the plant and, adding a little soil mixture to the hole, tamp it so that there are no voids in the soil.

After planting, make a hole with a roller of earth around the seedling at a distance of 25-30 cm, pour a bucket of water into the hole, and after it is absorbed and the root collar is at the level of the surface of the site, mulch the near-trunk circle with peat, sawdust or humus, and tie the seedling to the peg.

Cherry care

Spring care

How to properly care for cherries and what is the difference between caring for a seedling and caring for an already fruiting tree? The cultivation of cherries planted this year does not provide for the application of fertilizers to the site for another two to three years, therefore, the care of young growth consists in periodic shallow loosening of the soil in the near-trunk circle, removing weeds, pruning and watering. Trees that have already begun to bear fruit require abundant watering in the hot season - at least three buckets under one tree during the period of shoot growth, flowering and fruit ripening.

In cold and rainy spring, cherry trees are sprayed with a solution of one tablespoon of honey in a liter of water to attract pollinating insects to the garden. Loosening of the soil in near-trunk circles is carried out 3-4 times per season. In early spring, before bud break, the cherries are pruned, root shoots are removed and the tree circle is mulched with sawdust or compost. Every spring, cherries are preventively treated against pests and diseases.

Summer cherry care

In summer, the main task of the gardener is to meet the needs of fruit trees for nutrition and moisture, as well as to protect against pests, weeds and diseases. Remember to water the trees, especially in the hottest weather. Cherry sheds part of the ovaries in the summer, and as soon as this happens, it is necessary to apply nitrogen fertilizers under the cherries, and after 3-4 weeks, feed the fruit-bearing trees with phosphorus and potassium.

In summer, it is time to harvest cherries. Early varieties ripen by mid-late June, mid-ripening ones by the end of July, and late cherries ripen in August and even in September. The cherries are harvested as the fruits ripen.

How to care for the fall

With the onset of autumn, the time comes to apply organic and mineral fertilizers to the tree trunks of fruiting cherries for digging to a depth of 10 cm around the young and 15-20 around the fruiting cherries. This should be done with the onset of yellowing of the leaves, a couple of days after rain or watering. At the same time, autumn preventive treatment of trees and bushes from pests and diseases is carried out, as well as water-charging podzimny watering.

In October, baits with poison for rodents are laid out on the site and the trunks and bases of skeletal tree branches are whitened to protect against pests. In November, on the frozen soil, the fallen leaves are removed and the trunks are mulched with peat, and the trunks of young cherries are tied with spruce branches.

Cherry processing

In the spring, before the buds bloom, it is best to treat the cherries with a 7% urea solution, which will destroy the pests that have overwintered in the bark or in the soil under the tree, and for one and feed the cherry with nitrogen. However, if you do not have time to do this before the start of sap flow, then it is better to treat the cherries with a 3% solution of copper sulphate or Bordeaux liquid, since urea can cause burns to buds opening. Two weeks later, when the daytime temperature rises to 18 ºC, treat trees and bushes from ticks and other overwintered insects, as well as from powdery mildew with colloidal sulfur or Neoron according to the instructions.

In the summer, during the period of fruit growth, as a preventive measure, cherries are treated with Fufanon for pests, and copper oxychloride for diseases.

In the fall, before the leaves fall, spray the trees with a 4% urea solution - both as a disease control and as a final top dressing.

Watering

Watering cherries is carried out with such an amount of water that the soil in the near-trunk circle is soaked to a depth of 40-45 cm, but the soil should not sour. The first time the cherries are watered after flowering, at the same time as feeding. The second watering is needed during the period of berry pouring. From 3 to 6 buckets of water are poured under each tree - the exact amount depends on the weather and the presence or absence of rains during this period.

In October, when the leaves fall cherries arrange podzimny water-charging irrigation, the purpose of which is to moisten the soil to a depth of 70-80 cm. Podzimny watering saturates the soil with moisture, which the roots will need to acquire winter hardiness, in addition, moist soil freezes much more slowly.

Young, still fruitless trees are watered every 2 weeks, and in extreme heat - weekly.

Top dressing

Cherries are fed with organic fertilizers once every two or three years in the fall, bringing them in for digging. At the same time of the year, the site is fertilized with mineral fertilizers - potash and phosphorus in the amount of 25-30 g of superphosphate and 20-25 g of potassium sulfate per m². Nitrogen fertilizers are applied at the rate of 15-20 g of ammonium nitrate or 10-15 g of urea per m² of the plot twice a year - in early spring and after cherry blossoms. It is important that fertilizers are applied not to the near-stem circle of each plant, but to the entire area with cherry trees. Before fertilizing the cherries, the area is watered.

In addition to fertilizing the soil, you can carry out foliar dressing of cherries with a solution of 50 g of urea in 10 liters of water 2-3 times at intervals of a week in the evening, however, wait until the sun sets before feeding the cherries.

Wintering

An adult, fruiting cherry is able to withstand even severe frosts without shelter, and nevertheless, it is necessary to protect its roots from freezing. To do this, a snowdrift is thrown onto the near-trunk area and sprinkled with sawdust on top. Do not forget to whitewash the trunk and bases of the skeletal branches with a solution of lime in the fall, adding copper sulfate to it.

After whitewashing the trunk, young trees are tied with pine spruce branches for the winter.

Cherry pruning

When to trim

The first pruning of cherries is done in the spring, in March, before the buds swell. If you are late and the sap flow has already begun, postpone pruning, otherwise the branches shortened with pruners may dry out. Sometimes cherries are pruned in the summer, right after harvest. Autumn pruning is carried out at the end of the growing season. Sanitary pruning, requiring the immediate removal of diseased branches, is carried out at any time of the year.

How to trim

Planting and caring for cherries does not cause much difficulty, but pruning ... Many novice gardeners, as soon as it comes to pruning cherries, panic and prefer to pretend that the tree does not need it. But pruning greatly affects the quality of the crop. Let's try to understand this really difficult question.

With the seedlings planted this year, everything is simple: 5-6 of the strongest branches are formed on them (it is permissible for seedlings of bush varieties to have up to a dozen developed branches), and the rest are cut into a ring without leaving stumps. Sections are treated with garden pitch. You need to leave branches directed in different directions and growing from the trunk at a distance of at least 10 cm from each other. From the second year, the formation of cherries is carried out in this way: branches and shoots growing inside the crown are cut out, shoots that appear on the trunk are also removed.

In cherries of tree varieties, branches that grow quickly upward are shortened, otherwise it will be difficult to harvest from them later. In bush cherry varieties, the shoots are shortened to 50 cm. As they grow, new skeletal branches will appear in tree cherries at approximately equal distance from other branches. As a result, an adult tree should have 12-15 of them. For sanitary purposes, dry, diseased and damaged branches and shoots are also cut out.

Spring pruning

The most important thing is spring pruning of cherries, and if you do it right from year to year, spring pruning alone will suffice. Cut the cherries as we already wrote, before the swelling of the kidneys. The only exception can be spring, which came after very severe frosts: in this case, you should just wait for the buds to swell in order to determine which of the branches and shoots have suffered from the cold, and only then proceed to formative pruning, simultaneously removing the frozen shoots. However, the cuts should be processed immediately, since during the period of sap flow, the tree is very painful for wounds.

If annual shoots are no longer than 25-35 cm, do not cut them, remove only competing and thickening shoots, and cut off those that grow vertically upwards at the point of origin. Shorten the cherry trunk in such a way that it rises above the ends of the skeletal branches by no more than 20 cm. In the summer, after the end of fruiting, if necessary, you can correct the shape of the crown.

Pruning in the fall

In autumn, cherries are pruned much less often than in spring. Most likely due to the fact that they are afraid to harm the future harvest, since a wound inflicted before the cold weather makes the tree more sensitive and vulnerable. The bottom line, however, is that correct pruning is what helps to increase the yield, as it prevents the development of infections. And it is undesirable to leave the tree for the winter with sick or broken shoots, which it will have to feed until spring to the detriment of healthy branches.

For autumn pruning, the main thing is to choose the moment between the end of the growing season and the first frost. If you did not have time with pruning before the cold weather, postpone it until spring, because from the frost the cherry bark becomes fragile, and if it is damaged, gum will begin to flow. Annual seedlings do not need autumn pruning.

Cherry propagation

Reproduction methods

Cherries are propagated by seeds, cuttings, root shoots and grafting. The seed method of propagation of cherries is used extremely rarely - this is an occupation for breeders. However, the ability to grow cherries from a stone can also be useful to an amateur gardener, since rootstocks for grafting are grown in this way. In amateur gardening, cherries are propagated vegetatively, and grafting has proven itself best of all - a method suitable for all varieties of cherries, while only self-rooted specimens can be propagated by root shoots.

Growing from seeds

Cherry pits are sown in open ground in the fall. The seedlings that appear in the spring are thinned out according to the 20x20 scheme and grown until autumn, caring like young cherries: watering, feeding, loosening the soil around them and removing weeds. Next spring, when the buds begin to swell, they will be ready for replanting the cultivated graft.

Cherry grafting

How to grow one variety of cherries using the root system of another? By vaccination method. But before planting a cherry, it is necessary to grow a stock from a seed of a winter-hardy variety, to which a cutting of a cultivated cherry variety is planted. It is best to use felt cherry pits, which do not form root shoots, for growing stock. We have just described how to do this. There are several ways of replanting grafts on a stock:

  • improved copulation;
  • in crust;
  • in the side cut;
  • under the bark.

Propagation by green cuttings

Today it is the most common method of propagation of cultivated cherries, since the root growth of cherries grown from cuttings is also an excellent material for cuttings. Cuttings are carried out in the second half of June, when the cherry shoots are growing vigorously.

You will need a box 10-12 cm deep and measuring 25x50 cm with small diameter drainage holes. Fill it with a mixture of peat and coarse sand in equal parts, spill the soil mixture with a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate, and then moisten it abundantly with water.

Select and cut well developed, not drooping, but growing upward shoots from the south or southwest side of a three to five year old bush or tree, sprinkle them with water, remove the top with underdeveloped leaves, which does not take root well. Cut the shoots into 10-12 cm long cuttings with 6-8 leaves. Remove the lower leaves from the segments. The upper cut on the handle should be straight and pass just above the kidney, the lower cut one centimeter below the knot. Stick the cuttings into the ground at a distance of 5-8 cm from each other to a depth of 2-3 cm and compact the soil around them. Then install a wire frame on the box so that it rises 15-20 cm, stretch plastic wrap over it and place the resulting greenhouse in a bright place, protected from direct sunlight.

As soon as the cuttings take root, and you will understand this, when the cherry leaves restore turgor, they begin to lift the film for a short time to air and harden the cuttings. For the winter, cuttings are buried in the garden, and in the spring they are planted for growing or in a permanent place.

Reproduction by root shoots

This method is used for propagation of own-rooted cherries and for growing rootstocks. Two-year-old root suckers of high-yielding rooted trees with a developed root system and a branched ground part, located at a distance from the mother plant, are used for reproduction, since cutting off the offspring growing close to the tree damages its roots. In the fall, at a short distance from the offspring, the root that connects it to the cherry is chopped off, but the offshoot is not planted, but left in the ground. In the spring, the shoots are dug up and sorted: those offspring whose root system is developed are planted in a permanent place, and those that are weaker are grown on a training bed.

Cherry diseases and their treatment

Diseases and pests of cherries could be the topic of a separate article. Cherry can be affected by such diseases: brown spot, clasternosporium, cherry mosaic and mosaic ringing, dying off of branches, scab, fruit rot, coccomycosis and moniliosis, root cancer, gum disease and witch's broom. We will tell you about those diseases that occur most often.

Brown spot manifested by the formation of brown, yellowish or reddish spots with or without a border on cherry leaves, on which, with the development of the disease, spores of the fungus appear in the form of black dots. In places of spots, the fabric of the leaf plate dries and crumbles, holes are formed. The affected leaves fall off. Treatment of cherries from brown spot is carried out by clearing the tree of diseased foliage, and then the cherry and the soil under it are treated with one percent Bordeaux liquid in three stages: at the beginning of bud break, immediately after flowering and two to three weeks after the second treatment.

Clasterosporium disease, or perforated spot, not only cherries are affected, but also other stone fruit trees - cherry, plum, apricot and peach. Signs of the disease are light brown spots with a diameter of up to 5 mm with a reddish border, which two weeks after the appearance begin to crumble, which is why holes form on the leaves, the leaves dry and fall off prematurely. Fruits are covered with depressed purple spots that grow up to 3 mm in diameter and take the form of warts, from which gum begins to flow. On the branches, cracking light spots with a dark border are formed, flowing gum, the kidneys affected by the disease turn black and look like varnished.

The affected branches must be cut down and destroyed, the wounds must be disinfected with a 1% solution of copper sulfate, and then rubbed three times with an interval of 10 minutes with fresh sorrel leaves, and then treated with garden varnish. The tree is sprayed with one percent Bordeaux liquid in three stages, as is done in the treatment of brown spot.

Coccomycosis can be identified by the small red dots appearing on the cherry leaves, which are covered with a pink bloom on the underside of the leaf. Affected leaves turn brown and dry. Especially often the disease affects cherries in areas with a humid climate. The fight against coccomycosis is carried out after the flower petals fall: the cherry is sprayed with a solution of 2 g of the Horus preparation in 10 liters of water, then the procedure is repeated 3 weeks after flowering and the third time - three weeks after harvest.

The withering away of the branches begins with the appearance on the bark of small warty light pink growths, located in groups and singly. In addition to cherries, the disease affects apple, currant, sweet cherry, plum and apricot. A diseased cherry branch must be removed, and the cut site is treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate, and then covered with garden varnish.

Scab manifests itself as velvety spots of olive-brown color on cherry fruits and leaves. Cracks form on ripe berries, green fruits stop developing and shrivel. Since scab is also a fungal disease, they get rid of it with the same Bordeaux liquid in three stages, as described earlier.

Infection moniliosis, or gray rot leads to the fact that the cherry dries - the branches and shoots wither, look burnt, the fruits rot, on them, like on the bark, gray, small, chaotically located growths are formed. This is the only difference between moniliosis and fruit rot, with the disease of which the growths on the berries are arranged in concentric circles. The branches crack, gum flows from them, forming nodules. Cherries are treated for gray and fruit rot with the same Bordeaux liquid, although, as in cases of defeat by other fungal diseases, drugs such as Nitrafen, iron and copper sulfate, Oleocobrite, copper oxychloride, Captan, Phtalan and Kuprozan cope well with them.

Gum flow, as a rule, is a sign of various diseases of cherry and is manifested by the release of a light, air-solidified, thick resinous substance from cracks in the bark of trees. Most often, cracks appear in the bark of frostbitten or sunburned trees, as well as specimens with perforated spots. If the process is not stopped immediately, the branches from which the gum flows will begin to dry, and as a result the entire tree may die. The edges of the damage in the bark must be cleaned with a sharp instrument, then the wound should be treated with a solution of 100 mg of oxalic acid in 1 liter of water or soaked with gruel from fresh sorrel, and then the damage should be covered with garden varnish.

Witch's broom - a fungus that parasitizes fruit trees and forms many thin, sterile shoots. Leaves on diseased trees become pale and slightly reddish, gradually become smaller, become fragile and wrinkle. By the end of summer, a gray bloom with fungal spores appears on the lower part of the leaf plate. Remove the affected branches, which have formed thin shoots, and treat the tree with a 5% solution of ferrous sulfate.

Root cancer - a bacterial disease that causes the appearance of small soft growths on the roots of fruit trees, which, with the development of the disease, increase to 10 cm in diameter and harden. As a result, the roots become weak, grow poorly on sandy soils, their root shoots do not form their roots. It is unlikely that it will be possible to cure an adult plant, but if you find cancer on a seedling, cut off all small formations with a formalin solution with a tool and disinfect the roots with a 1% solution of copper sulfate.

Mosaic disease and mosaic ringing - viral diseases. The mosaic is manifested by the formation of clear yellow stripes and stripes on the leaves, located parallel to the veins, and from this the leaves curl, turn red, turn brown and fall off prematurely. In case of annular disease, whitish circles appear on the leaves, in the place of which the leaf plate begins to crumble until holes are formed. Unfortunately, viral diseases cannot be cured, so you have to destroy the affected plants - uproot and burn them.

Cherry pests and control

Of the pests, the most dangerous for cherries are the plum moth, cherry and bird cherry weevils, slimy, public and pale-footed sawflies, subcrustal leafworm, cherry aphid and hawthorn.

Plum moth dangerous in the form of a caterpillar, which damages cherry fruits, feeding on both the kernels of the seeds and the pulp of berries. With the timely detection of the problem, an abundant and thorough treatment of cherry and plum trees and the areas under them with such preparations as Tsitkor, Ambush, Rovikurt, Anometrin is effective.

Cherry weevil - a bronze-green beetle with a raspberry tint, emerging from the pupa in the second half of May and feeding on the buds, buds, ovaries and leaves of cherry. The female beetle, laying eggs in the shell of the bone, can damage up to two hundred fruits, and the larva that emerged from the egg eats out the core of the bone. The berries damaged by the faces fall off. How to handle cherry weevil from cherry weevil? Immediately after the cherry blossoms, and then again after 10 days, the tree is sprayed with Ambush, Rovikurt or Aktellik in the concentration specified in the instructions.

Bird cherry weevil Is a gray-brown beetle that behaves in much the same way as the cherry weevil. He appears at the same time, and the harm from him is the same. And they get rid of this pest with the same preparations as for the cherry weevil, but the first treatment must be carried out even before flowering, and the second, if necessary, is carried out after the cherry has faded. Of the listed drugs, Actellic is preferable to use.

Everything sawflies, despite external differences, they eat cherry leaves, sometimes leaving only a skeleton of veins. With total reproduction, they can destroy up to 70% of the foliage, which will negatively affect the productivity and winter hardiness of the tree. Sawflies are destroyed immediately after flowering with the same Aktellik or Karbofos.

Subcortical leaf roll In June, lays eggs in cracks in the bark on the stem or branches of cherries, and the caterpillars hatching from them gnaw through the tunnels under the bark. In the fight against the subcortical leaf roll, a fifty percent solution of Actellik or a ten percent solution of Karbofos is used, treating trees with them during the flight of butterflies.

Hawthorn - large white butterfly. Its caterpillars with a black head and two golden-yellow stripes on the back, reaching 4.5 cm in length, emerge from spider nests in late April or early May. Despite the fact that birds are happy to peck them, even a small amount of remaining caterpillars can cause significant damage to your garden. In the fight against hawthorn, good results are obtained by treating trees at the time of the appearance of caterpillars with Aktellik, Rovikurt, Corsair or Ambush.

Cherry aphid - a small insect that causes serious trouble. As a result of its vital activity, young shoots are bent and stop growing, leaves curl, turn black and dry, cold resistance of young trees decreases, and they freeze in winter. Also, if you have aphids, expect an infestation of ants that feed on the secretions of aphids. The fight against the pest begins in early spring to prevent it from multiplying. Suitable for processing plants from aphids Karbofos, Actellik, Rovikurt or Ambush. After spraying trees with insecticides, regularly inspect cherries, and if you find at least a few aphids again, immediately re-treat them.

How to deal with cherries

Cherries very often give root shoots, which take away nutrients from the mother tree, and this is bad for fruiting. It will take a long time to wait for new cherries to start yielding crops, while the mother's cherry in the meantime will decay. To avoid the sad development of events, you can offer the following methods of dealing with overgrowth:

  • if you want to radically cleanse the area of ​​cherries, cut down the tree from which the growth is coming, drill holes in the saw cut surface, pour saltpeter into them and cover the stump with roofing material. In a few months, the stump will rot, and you will have to uproot the growth;
  • treat the shoots twice a month with herbicides such as Regent, Hurricane, Pruner, Glyphos or Tornado, and not only the shoots will die on the site, but also the tree from which this shoots comes;
  • if you want to preserve the tree, you will have to dig each shoot up to the place where it departs from the root of the cherry, and cut it at the root, leaving no stumps.

We recommend that you gradually get rid of the growing cherries by replacing them with seedlings on seed stocks that do not sprout. Currently, it is not a problem to purchase such seedlings. If you are not sure that new cherries will not grow half a garden, dig in pieces of slate or roofing material within a radius of 50 cm around the seedling to a depth of 50 cm, and since cherry shoots are formed at a depth of 30 cm, this measure can prevent overgrowing of the garden with cherry shoots.

Cherry varieties

Cherry varieties for the Moscow region

Cherry varieties for the Moscow region must have certain properties: increased winter hardiness, resistance to diseases such as coccomycosis, and high yields. Based on this, the best cherry for the Moscow region:

  • Lyubskaya - the oldest, high-yielding, self-fertile cherry variety, reaching a height of 2.5 m, which greatly facilitates harvesting. Spreading crown, gray-brown bark, dark red berries with sweet and sour pulp;
  • Apukhtinskaya - self-fertile late shrub-type cherry up to 3 m high with large dark red berries in the shape of a heart, with a sweet and sour taste and a slight bitterness;
  • Youth - a high-yielding winter-hardy variety up to 2.5 m high, bred by crossing Vladimirskaya and Lyubskaya varieties. It can have both a bush and a tree-like shape. The variety is resistant to fungal diseases. The fruits are juicy, dark red, sweet and sour in taste;
  • In memory of Vavilov - self-fertile winter-hardy tall variety with bright red fruits of sweet and sour taste;
  • Toy - a high-yielding cherry / cherry hybrid with bright red fleshy berries with a refreshing taste;
  • Turgenevka - popular in the Moscow region, high-yielding and coccomycosis-resistant cherry up to 3 m high with an inverted pyramid crown shape. The berries are large, burgundy, heart-shaped, with a sweet and sour taste. Disadvantage: pollination requires the presence on the site of pollinating varieties such as Molodezhnaya or Lyubskaya.

In addition to those described, varieties such as Almaz, Generous, Crystal and Shubinka are suitable for growing in the climate of the Moscow region.

Early varieties

Of the early varieties of cherries, ripening by mid to late June, the most famous are:

  • Orlovskaya early - winter-hardy variety, resistant to coccomycosis with medium-sized red fruits;
  • English early - an old variety of English selection, moderately winter-hardy, tall, dark red, juicy, sweet fruits;
  • Consumer goods - undersized cherry with dessert, large, juicy and sweet dark brown fruits with barely noticeable sourness;
  • Memory of Yenikeev - medium-sized self-fertile tree up to 3 m in height with average yield and fruits for universal purposes;
  • Expectation - a high-yielding variety with dark red, almost black fruits, used both fresh and processed in the form of jam, compotes and liqueurs;
  • Early dessert - an ultra-early variety with yellow-red fruits.

Medium varieties

Of the mid-season cherry varieties, the following have proven themselves better than others:

  • Robin - medium-sized, winter-hardy, self-fertile tree with dark red fruits of sweet and sour taste. Such varieties as Shubinka, Lyubskaya, Vladimirskaya, Bulatnikovskaya are suitable for pollination. The variety is resistant to coccomycosis;
  • Chocolate girl - self-fertile, winter-hardy, drought-resistant undersized variety with dark red fruits;
  • Morozovka - medium-sized drought-resistant and winter-hardy cherry with bright red sweet dessert fruits. The variety is self-fertile, resistant to coccomycosis;
  • Vladimirskaya - tall self-fruitless cherry with medium-sized, flat-round, slightly flattened fruits of dark red color, sweet and sour taste;
  • Rossosh black - fruitful, winter-hardy, drought-resistant medium-sized variety with large maroon, almost black fruits of sweet and sour taste;
  • Blackcork - medium-sized, winter-hardy, self-fertile tree with almost black sweet fruits, distinguished by a barely noticeable acidity.

Late varieties of cherries

The most popular late-ripening varieties are:

  • Belle - a fruitful frost-resistant variety with medium-sized fruits of dark red color with a delicate, juicy pulp of a sweet-sour taste;
  • Fertile Michurina - high-yielding, winter-hardy, medium-sized variety with a spreading crown and medium-sized round, shiny fruits of bright red color. The disadvantage of the variety is poor resistance to fungal diseases;
  • Nord Star - self-fertile, low-growing, resistant to fungal diseases cherry of high winter hardiness with dark red fruits;
  • Memory - a high-yielding winter-hardy variety with large dark red berries of a sweet and sour taste;
  • Rusinka - bushy self-fertile, highly winter-resistant cherry up to 2 m high with dark red, almost black fruits of sweet and sour taste;
  • Erudite - not so long ago bred variety with large dark red berries.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the family Pink
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online
  5. Information about Fruit Crops

Sections: Fruit and berry plants Pink (Rosaceae) Fruit trees Plants on B


Perennial gypsophila - planting and care, description of varieties with photos, reproduction

Large pillows of flowering gypsophila will add lightness and charm to the garden. This undemanding plant is easy to grow, the main thing is to prepare it the right planting site and soil. From this article you will learn the conditions and rules on how to grow perennial gypsophila - planting and care in the open field, photos and descriptions of varieties.

  1. Description of the plant
  2. Types and interesting varieties
  3. Small-flowered white
  4. Large-flowered white
  5. Small-flowered pink
  6. Basic plant requirements
  7. Choosing a landing site
  8. Soil requirements
  9. Growing and care
  10. Lighting and temperature
  11. Watering, feeding
  12. Pruning
  13. Diseases and pests
  14. Reproduction
  15. Seeds
  16. Sowing in open ground
  17. Sowing seedlings
  18. Cuttings
  19. Use in the garden

Bush cherry: planting and fertilization

In order for bush-type cherries to give bountiful harvests, it is necessary to create the most favorable conditions for its growth and development.

Landing

The most important thing when planting is to choose a well-lit flat area for seedlings. So that in the event of a snowy winter or a rainy summer, an excess of moisture cannot damage the roots of the tree, as well as lead to the appearance of pests and pathogens.

The plant prefers soil with neutral acidity, for example, light or medium sandy sands are perfect. Planting of seedlings is carried out in early spring, after the snow has completely melted and dry warm weather is established.

Fertilizer

The best fertilizer for cherries is humus. It is applied at planting: 4-5 kg ​​in each hole, and then the cycle is repeated after several years at the rate of 40-60 t / ha.

During the growing season, namely in the first 2-3 years of life, cherries need nitrogenous nutrition. Most often, ammonium nitrate is used for feeding (20-25 g per 1 m 2). After 3-4 years (in the fall), additional phosphate and potash fertilizers are introduced: superphosphate - 70 g per 1 m 2 of area, potassium salt - 30-40 g per m 2, you can also sprinkle the area of ​​the cherry orchard with buckwheat ash - 300-400 g by 1 m 2.

Watering

Despite the fact that the steppe cherry is not a moisture-loving culture, watering should still be carried out 2-3 times per season: during flowering and pouring the fruits. The most rational thing is to combine it with fertilizer.


Japanese cherry: proper care

Ornamental cherry will delight you with its flowering for more than one year, if you are serious about caring for it.

Watering

During dynamic growth and during the formation of buds and ovaries, the tree needs additional watering. The rest of the time, maintain normal soil moisture.

Top dressing

The Japanese cherry reacts sharply to the lack of potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus. If the soil is poor, organic fertilizers are applied - 8 kg per square meter. Potassium and phosphorus are applied per one square meter by 18 grams.

Pruning

In the spring, cut off dry and some of the old thick branches so as not to thicken the crown. The pruning site is treated with garden pitch to prevent the formation of gum.

Disease prevention

In the spring after flowering, the crown is treated with nitrofen (200 grams per 10 liters of water). To avoid the appearance of aphids, it is recommended to treat the trunk with nettle tincture (pour 1000 g of fresh or 400 g of dried nettle with 10 liters of cool water, leave for 24 hours). You can also use a decoction of wormwood (boil 500 g of the plant for 10-15 minutes in 200 grams of water).

Preparing for winter

Before the onset of frost, the grafting site and the trunk are tied with a covering material, the trunk and large branches - with agrofibre.

Oriental beauty Sakura takes pride of place among perennial flowering tree plants. It is sung by poets and artists, and at home in Japan is considered a symbol of youth and beauty.

If you follow the recommendations of experts and carefully follow the conditions of planting and care, you can grow Japanese cherries in your area, get an excellent garden decoration and collect a delicious sweet and sour harvest.


Main characteristics

Cherry Delight belongs to the conditionally columnar varieties. It is suitable for growing in small areas, in regions with warm winters. But before purchasing a Delight cherry seedling, it is important to read the description, reviews and view photos.

Drought resistance, frost resistance

Pyramidal cherry Delight is not a winter-hardy fruit crop. Therefore, it is not recommended to grow the plant in regions with cold winters. But if you like the variety, and the weather does not allow you to grow it without shelter, then the tree is wrapped in agrofibre for the winter, and the soil is insulated with a layer of mulch.

The root system of a fruit crop is located superficially, therefore, in a dry summer, the tree is watered regularly and abundantly. At least 1 bucket of water is consumed per plant.

Yield

Cherry Delight belongs to mid-season varieties. The seedling starts bearing fruit 2-3 years after planting. Berries ripen in mid-July, subject to agrotechnical rules, up to 35 kg of a tasty and healthy harvest can be removed from an adult tree. The volume depends on compliance with the rules of care, weather conditions and the presence of pollinating varieties.

Since the berry has a juicy, sweet pulp, it is used to make compotes, preserves and jams. It can also be dried and frozen. For harvesting, they choose a sunny, low wind day. The removed berries are put in boxes lined with paper. Without additional processing, the harvested crop remains fresh for a week if stored in a cool room.

The harvested crop will be to the taste of children and adults

Advantages and disadvantages

Cherry Delight, like any fruit crop, has its positive and negative sides. The pluses include:

  • yield
  • compact size
  • unpretentiousness
  • decorative view
  • immunity to many diseases
  • good taste.

The disadvantages include partial self-fertility and low frost resistance.


Diseases and pests

A common reason for the appearance of signs of various diseases is illiterate care or prevention.

Existing diseases and pests:

    The appearance of fruit rot on Spartan cherry is possible. Can develop after hail or pest attacks.

As a treatment, the tree should be sprayed with a fungicidal solution of drugs such as Topaz or Previkur.

To destroy the pest, the leaves should be treated with an insecticide Lepidocide or Bitoxibacillin

To kill flies, the tree is treated with Fufanon or Sigmaen


Watch the video: Fruit Trees: Care, Maintenance and Winter Pruning


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