Cereus phatnospermus


Scientific Name

Cereus phatnospermus K.Schum.

Synonyms

Cereus adelmarii, Cereus phatnospermus subsp. adelmarii, Monvillea adelmarii, Monvillea phatnosperma

Scientific Classification

Family: Cactaceae
Subfamily: Cactoideae
Tribe: Cereeae
Genus: Cereus

Origin

This species is native to Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Peru.

Description

Cereus phatnospermus is a highly branched cactus with fleshy, dark green, decumbent or ascending stems that grow up to 6.6 feet (2 m) long and up to 1 inch (2.5 cm) in diameter. The stems have 4 to 5 well-defined ribs, areoles about 1.2 inches (3 cm) apart, and brown spines. Each areole bears 5 to 6 up to 0.6 inches (1.5 cm) long radial spines and one up to 1.2 inches (3 cm) long central spine. Flowers are white, funnel-shaped up to 4.8 inches (12 cm) long, and appear from spring to early fall. Fruits are red, egg-shaped, and 3 inches (7.5 cm) long.

The specific epithet "phatnospermus" derives from the Greek words "phatnoein," meaning "hollow out" and "sperma," meaning "seed," and refers to the patterning of the seed surface.

How to Grow and Care for Cereus phatnospermus

Light: Cereus cacti like full sun. They can handle partial shade but thrives during the summer in direct sunlight. Sunny south, east, or west window is a good spot to grow a Cereus indoors.

Soil: These cacti do not like to have "wet feet" and need to be grown in well-draining soil. Use commercial soil mixes for cacti and succulents or make your own potting mix.

Hardiness: Cereus phatnospermus can withstand temperatures as low as 20 to 50 °F (-6.7 to 10 °C), USDA hardiness zones 9a to 11b.

Watering: From spring to fall, during the active growth period water thoroughly, but allow the soil to dry out before watering again. With the arrival of fall, gradually reduce the watering frequency.

Fertilizing: During their growing season, Cereus cacti like regular fertilizing. A balanced, water-soluble fertilizer, which has been diluted to 1/4 strength, can be added to the water for each watering. Do not feed during the winter.

Repotting: While Cereus cacti are young, it is recommended to repot each year in early spring to provide them with fresh soil, inspect the root system, and move them to larger pots if necessary.

Propagation: Using stem cuttings is the easiest method to propagate Cereus because seed propagation is a slow process.

Learn more at How to Grow and Care for Cereus.

Toxicity of Cereus phatnospermus

Cereus cacti are non-toxic to humans or animals.

Links

  • Back to genus Cereus
  • Succulentopedia: Browse succulents by Scientific Name, Common Name, Genus, Family, USDA Hardiness Zone, Origin, or cacti by Genus

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Cereus phatnospermus - garden

Accepted Scientific Name: Cereus kroenleinii N.P.Taylor
Kew Bull. 50(4): 819 (1995)

Origin and Habitat: Cereus kroenleinii is found in Santa Cruz (Bolivia), in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) and in Paraguay.
Altitude range: This species occurs at elevations between 10 and 500 metres above sea level.
Habitat and ecology: This cactus grows together with Cereus bicolor in dry forests creeping among other vegetation in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, mostly at the edges of the hummocks (floodplain) between the vegetation of the wooded islands that stands just above the high water level of the rainy season. The plants, that are characterized by pendent growth, occasionally hang down from the tops of granite outcrops, termite hills or cliffs (for instance, along the bank of the Rio Paraguay). Cereus kroenleinii is widely distributed, locally common, and there are no major threats affecting it, but in the easternmost portion of its range it may be affected by deforestation for agricultural purposes.

  • Cereus kroenleinii N.P.Taylor
    • Cereus kroehnleinii (R.Kiesling) P.J.Braun & Esteves
    • Cereus phatnospermus subs. kroenleinii (N.P.Taylor) P.J.Braun & Esteves
    • Monvillea kroenleinii R.Kiesling

Description: Cereus kroenleinii is a shrubby cactus with thin and flexible branches, standing erect among the other vegetation, otherwise creeping and forming tangled clumps to 2 m tall and 6 metres in spread. Some authors now call this plant Cereus kroenleinii, but Braun and Esteves believe it should be understood as a subspecies of Cereus phatnospermus.
Derivation of specific name: This member of the Cactaceae family was given this name in honor of Marcel Kroenlein (1928-1994), director of the Exotic Garden of Monaco from 1969 to 1993.
Stems: Long cylindrical, erect or creeping, 1-4 m long, to 2.5 cm in diameter, dark green, very glaucous, square in cross section when young, nearly round in cross section when mature.
Ribs: 4-5, forming distinct tubercles.
Areoles: Round, confluent apically, otherwise separated, with long woolly hairs.
Spines: Needle-like, very thin, sharp, dark brown with yellow bases.
Central spine: One, 2-3 cm long.
Radial spines: 5, to 1.5 cm long, , the lowest spine being the shortest.
Flowers: Night blooming. Funnel-shaped 9-10 cm long. Perianth segments white with pink tips.
Fruits: Ovoid, ruby red with violet tint, to 3.7 cm long
Taxonomy: The first description made by Roberto Kiesling as the Monvillea kroenleinii is considered invalid because the specimen reviewed and cited in the description was not formally designated as such. Thus the combination Cereus kroenleinii (R. Kiesling) PJ Braun & E. Esteves (Succulenta 74 (2): 83-84 (1995) as "kroehnleinii") was also invalid and Nigel Taylor validates the name by publishing a new description. However, it is noteworthy that Detlev Metzing expressed a dissenting opinion in Cactaceae concensus initiatives 3:14 (1997) remarking that if the holotype was not formally designated as such, and Roberto Kiesling did not see the preserved specimen at Munich (M), its photos can not constitute the type, so there is no doubt that he intended to designate as holotype specimen the other specimen cited in its description, that is to say the specimen collected by J. Fernández Casas and J. Molero-Broines under the number 4468 and held in Geneva.

Bibliography: Major references and further lectures
1) Edward Anderson “The Cactus family” Timber Press, Incorporated, 2001
2) Oakley, L. & Pin, A. 2013. Cereus kroenleinii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T152028A588861. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T152028A588861.en. Downloaded on 25 June 2016.
3) Hunt, D., Taylor, N. and Charles, G. (compilers and editors). “The New Cactus Lexicon”. dh Books, Milborne Port, UK. 2006.
4) Arenas, P. “Etnobotánica: lengua-maskoy” Fundación para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, Buenos Aires. 1981.
5) Arenas, P. “Nombres y usos de las plantas por los indígenas maká del Chaco boreal”. Parodiana 2 : 131-229. 1983.
6) Philippe Corman Cereus kroenleinii N.P. Taylor in "Encyclopédie des Cactus, Plantes Grasses et Succulentes” retrieved 26 June 1961 from
7) Charles W. Heckman “The Pantanal of Poconé: Biota and Ecology in the Northern Section of the World’s Largest Pristine Wetland” Springer Science & Business Media, 30 April 1998
8) Urs Eggli, Leonard E. Newton “Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names” Springer Science & Business Media, 29 June 2013


Habitat of Cereus kroehnleinii, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. (Cereus kroenleinii) Photo by: Alexander Arzberger
Cereus kroehnleinii, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. (Cereus kroenleinii) Photo by: Alexander Arzberger
Cereus kroehnleinii, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. (Cereus kroenleinii) Photo by: Alexander Arzberger

Send a photo of this plant.

The gallery now contains thousands of pictures, however it is possible to do even more. We are, of course, seeking photos of species not yet shown in the gallery but not only that, we are also looking for better pictures than those already present. Read More.

Cultivation and Propagation: Cereus kroenleinii is very easy to cultivate, easy to propagate, and produces numerous showy white flowers 10 cm long.
Growth rate: It grows quickly (a young plant will easily grow more than a 30 cm per year).
Soils: For pot culture it needs standard cactus soil. Outdoors needs well drained spots, with deep soil, but will still thrive in less than ideal conditions.
Repotting: Since they are big-sized plants, they need plenty of space for their roots. Repotting should be done every other year, or when the plant has outgrown its pot. Use pot with good drainage.
Watering: Water regularly in summer, but do not overwater and allow to dry fully before watering again. Its roots are easily lost in pots that stay damp for any length of time. It should not be watered at all in winter. In the rest period no high atmospheric humidity!! Care must be taken with watering as they tends to become swollen and untidy in growth habit if given too much water and shade.
Fertilization: During the growing season enrich the soil using a fertilizer rich in potassium and phosphorous, but poor in nitrogen, because this chemical element doesn’t help the development of succulent plants, making them too soft and full of water.
Hardiness: Reputedly sensitive to frost, but less so if kept on the dry side prior to, and during, cold weather (hardy to -5° C for short periods). However some warmth throughout the year will increase the grower's success (minimum 5° to 10°C during rest season). In presence of high atmospheric humidity make sure that your Cereus kroenleinii are not exposed to freezing temperatures, or they may die. Outdoors this plant is very adaptable, as long as you avoid excessive humidity in the winter months.
Exposition: It likes filtered sun, but is tolerant and do well with light shade during the hot Summer months, inside it needs bright light, and some direct sun.
Tradition uses: Mature fruits of this species are consumed by the natives Ayoreo, Lengua-Maskoy, and Maka.
Propagation: From cuttings in spring (let them dry till the ends callous well). Then replant them in fresh cactus soil that is ever so slightly moist, and keep them that way till they root), or by Seeds (Seeds should be sown in a well-drained soil mix. Surface sowing is the best seeds germinate in 14-28 days at 25° C . The seedlings should not be disturbed until they are well rooted, after which they can be planted separately in small pots.


Cereus phatnospermus - garden

Accepted Scientific Name: Cereus kroenleinii N.P.Taylor
Kew Bull. 50(4): 819 (1995)

Origin and Habitat: Cereus kroenleinii is found in Santa Cruz (Bolivia), in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) and in Paraguay.
Altitude range: This species occurs at elevations between 10 and 500 metres above sea level.
Habitat and ecology: This cactus grows together with Cereus bicolor in dry forests creeping among other vegetation in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, mostly at the edges of the hummocks (floodplain) between the vegetation of the wooded islands that stands just above the high water level of the rainy season. The plants, that are characterized by pendent growth, occasionally hang down from the tops of granite outcrops, termite hills or cliffs (for instance, along the bank of the Rio Paraguay). Cereus kroenleinii is widely distributed, locally common, and there are no major threats affecting it, but in the easternmost portion of its range it may be affected by deforestation for agricultural purposes.

  • Cereus kroenleinii N.P.Taylor
    • Cereus kroehnleinii (R.Kiesling) P.J.Braun & Esteves
    • Cereus phatnospermus subs. kroenleinii (N.P.Taylor) P.J.Braun & Esteves
    • Monvillea kroenleinii R.Kiesling

Description: Cereus kroenleinii is a shrubby cactus with thin and flexible branches, standing erect among the other vegetation, otherwise creeping and forming tangled clumps to 2 m tall and 6 metres in spread. Some authors now call this plant Cereus kroenleinii, but Braun and Esteves believe it should be understood as a subspecies of Cereus phatnospermus.
Derivation of specific name: This member of the Cactaceae family was given this name in honor of Marcel Kroenlein (1928-1994), director of the Exotic Garden of Monaco from 1969 to 1993.
Stems: Long cylindrical, erect or creeping, 1-4 m long, to 2.5 cm in diameter, dark green, very glaucous, square in cross section when young, nearly round in cross section when mature.
Ribs: 4-5, forming distinct tubercles.
Areoles: Round, confluent apically, otherwise separated, with long woolly hairs.
Spines: Needle-like, very thin, sharp, dark brown with yellow bases.
Central spine: One, 2-3 cm long.
Radial spines: 5, to 1.5 cm long, , the lowest spine being the shortest.
Flowers: Night blooming. Funnel-shaped 9-10 cm long. Perianth segments white with pink tips.
Fruits: Ovoid, ruby red with violet tint, to 3.7 cm long
Taxonomy: The first description made by Roberto Kiesling as the Monvillea kroenleinii is considered invalid because the specimen reviewed and cited in the description was not formally designated as such. Thus the combination Cereus kroenleinii (R. Kiesling) PJ Braun & E. Esteves (Succulenta 74 (2): 83-84 (1995) as "kroehnleinii") was also invalid and Nigel Taylor validates the name by publishing a new description. However, it is noteworthy that Detlev Metzing expressed a dissenting opinion in Cactaceae concensus initiatives 3:14 (1997) remarking that if the holotype was not formally designated as such, and Roberto Kiesling did not see the preserved specimen at Munich (M), its photos can not constitute the type, so there is no doubt that he intended to designate as holotype specimen the other specimen cited in its description, that is to say the specimen collected by J. Fernández Casas and J. Molero-Broines under the number 4468 and held in Geneva.

Bibliography: Major references and further lectures
1) Edward Anderson “The Cactus family” Timber Press, Incorporated, 2001
2) Oakley, L. & Pin, A. 2013. Cereus kroenleinii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T152028A588861. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T152028A588861.en. Downloaded on 25 June 2016.
3) Hunt, D., Taylor, N. and Charles, G. (compilers and editors). “The New Cactus Lexicon”. dh Books, Milborne Port, UK. 2006.
4) Arenas, P. “Etnobotánica: lengua-maskoy” Fundación para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, Buenos Aires. 1981.
5) Arenas, P. “Nombres y usos de las plantas por los indígenas maká del Chaco boreal”. Parodiana 2 : 131-229. 1983.
6) Philippe Corman Cereus kroenleinii N.P. Taylor in "Encyclopédie des Cactus, Plantes Grasses et Succulentes” retrieved 26 June 1961 from
7) Charles W. Heckman “The Pantanal of Poconé: Biota and Ecology in the Northern Section of the World’s Largest Pristine Wetland” Springer Science & Business Media, 30 April 1998
8) Urs Eggli, Leonard E. Newton “Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names” Springer Science & Business Media, 29 June 2013


Habitat of Cereus kroehnleinii, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. (Cereus kroenleinii) Photo by: Alexander Arzberger
Cereus kroehnleinii, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. (Cereus kroenleinii) Photo by: Alexander Arzberger
Cereus kroehnleinii, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. (Cereus kroenleinii) Photo by: Alexander Arzberger

Send a photo of this plant.

The gallery now contains thousands of pictures, however it is possible to do even more. We are, of course, seeking photos of species not yet shown in the gallery but not only that, we are also looking for better pictures than those already present. Read More.

Cultivation and Propagation: Cereus kroenleinii is very easy to cultivate, easy to propagate, and produces numerous showy white flowers 10 cm long.
Growth rate: It grows quickly (a young plant will easily grow more than a 30 cm per year).
Soils: For pot culture it needs standard cactus soil. Outdoors needs well drained spots, with deep soil, but will still thrive in less than ideal conditions.
Repotting: Since they are big-sized plants, they need plenty of space for their roots. Repotting should be done every other year, or when the plant has outgrown its pot. Use pot with good drainage.
Watering: Water regularly in summer, but do not overwater and allow to dry fully before watering again. Its roots are easily lost in pots that stay damp for any length of time. It should not be watered at all in winter. In the rest period no high atmospheric humidity!! Care must be taken with watering as they tends to become swollen and untidy in growth habit if given too much water and shade.
Fertilization: During the growing season enrich the soil using a fertilizer rich in potassium and phosphorous, but poor in nitrogen, because this chemical element doesn’t help the development of succulent plants, making them too soft and full of water.
Hardiness: Reputedly sensitive to frost, but less so if kept on the dry side prior to, and during, cold weather (hardy to -5° C for short periods). However some warmth throughout the year will increase the grower's success (minimum 5° to 10°C during rest season). In presence of high atmospheric humidity make sure that your Cereus kroenleinii are not exposed to freezing temperatures, or they may die. Outdoors this plant is very adaptable, as long as you avoid excessive humidity in the winter months.
Exposition: It likes filtered sun, but is tolerant and do well with light shade during the hot Summer months, inside it needs bright light, and some direct sun.
Tradition uses: Mature fruits of this species are consumed by the natives Ayoreo, Lengua-Maskoy, and Maka.
Propagation: From cuttings in spring (let them dry till the ends callous well). Then replant them in fresh cactus soil that is ever so slightly moist, and keep them that way till they root), or by Seeds (Seeds should be sown in a well-drained soil mix. Surface sowing is the best seeds germinate in 14-28 days at 25° C . The seedlings should not be disturbed until they are well rooted, after which they can be planted separately in small pots.


Contents

Cereus are shrubby or treelike, often attaining great heights (C. hexagonus, C. lamprospermus, C. trigonodendron up to 15 m). Most stems are angled or distinctly ribbed, ribs 3–14 cm long, usually well developed and have large areoles, usually bearing spines. Cephalium is not present, Cereus mortensenii develops pseudocephalium. Flowers are large, funnelform, 9–30 cm long, usually white, sometimes pink, purple, rarely cream, yellow, greenish, and open at night. Fruits are globose to ovoid to oblong, 3–13 cm long, fleshy, naked, usually red but sometimes yellow, pulp white, pink or red. Seeds large, curved ovoid, glossy black. [4]

The name Cereus originates in a book by Tabernaemontanus published in 1625 and refers to the candle-like form of species Cereus hexagonus. It was described by Philip Miller in 1754, and included all known cacti with very elongated bodies. [5]

Ludwig Pfeiffer in 1838 distinguished Cephalocereus (type Cephalocereus senilis) the name is derived from the Greek κεφᾶλή (cephalē), head, thus headed cereus, referring to the hairy pseudocephalium. [6] Charles Lemaire described Pilocereus in 1839, now renamed as Pilosocereus. The name Pilocereus is derived from the Greek πῖλος (pilos), felted, hairy, thus hairy cereus, similar to the Latin pilosus, from which the name Pilosocereus was derived. [7] Echinocereus (type Echinocereus viridiflorus) was described in 1848 by George Engelmann the name is derived from the Greek ἐχῖνος (echinos), hedgehog or sea urchin. [8]

Britton & Rose (1919–1923) and Alwin Berger (1929) continued to divide Cereus into many genera. The 33 or so species that remain in the Cereus group are largely plants that have not been moved out of the genus rather than plants that have been included because they fit the description of Cereus. This inclusion-by-lack-of-exclusion makes for a very messy and unsatisfactory grouping. [3]

Species Edit

  • Subgenus Cereus
    • Cereus argentinensis
    • Cereus bicolor
    • Cereus braunii
    • Cereus cochabambensis
    • Cereus comarapanus
    • Cereus fernambucensis
      • subsp. fernambucensis
      • subsp. sericifer
    • Cereus hankeanus
    • Cereus hexagonus
    • Cereus hildmannianus
      • subsp. hildmannianus
      • subsp. uruguayanus
    • Cereus insularis
    • Cereus jamacaru
      • subsp. jamacaru
      • subsp. calcirupicola
      • subsp. goiasensis
    • Cereus lamprospermus
      • subsp. lamprospermus
      • subsp. colosseus
    • Cereus lanosus
    • Cereus pachyrhizus
    • Cereus pierre-braunianus
    • Cereus roseiflorus
    • Cereus stenogonus
    • Cereus tacuaralensis
    • Cereus trigonodendron
    • Cereus validus
    • Cereus vargasianus
  • Subgenus Ebneria (Backeb.) D. R. Hunt
    • Cereus adelmarii
    • Cereus aethiops
    • Cereus estevesii
    • Cereus haageanus
    • Cereus kroenleinii
    • Cereus phatnospermus
    • Cereus saddianus
    • Cereus spegazzinii
  • Subgenus Neohaiticereus (Areces-Mallea 2018) [10]
    • Cereus ayisyen[11] syn. C. haitiensis, C. serrulifloris
  • Subgenus Mirabella (F. Ritter) N. P. Taylor
    • Cereus albicaulis
    • Cereus mirabella
  • Subgenus Oblongicarpi (Croizat) D. R. Hunt & N. P. Taylor
    • Cereus fricii
    • Cereus horrispinus
    • Cereus huilunchu
    • Cereus mortensenii
    • Cereus repandus

The range includes Brazil, northern Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia, rarely Peru, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. [4]

Fruits and stems of Cereus repandus are edible. Its wood has been used in making furniture and for firewood, and sliced stems have been used as a soap substitute. It is also cultivated as a living fence. [12]

Charles Lemaire, Iconographie descriptive des cactées, 1841 – 7.

Cereus uruguayanus in shrumbs formation, Uruguay


Watch the video: Advice on Cereus cactus


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